Select Commentary| Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible| 2Cor Chapter 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 |
ChiNCVsKJVClarke

问安

1 奉 神旨意作基督耶稣使徒的保罗,和提摩太弟兄,写信给在哥林多 神的教会,和全亚该亚所有的圣徒。
1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia:
1


THE

SECOND EPISTLE OF PAUL THE APOSTLE

TO THE

CORINTHIANS.



Chronological Notes relative to this Epistle.



-Year of the Constantinopolitan era of the world, or that used

by the emperors of the east in their diplomata, &c., and thence

also called the "civil era of the Greeks," εφξε (5565.)

-Year of the Alexandrian era of the world, or ecclesiastical

epoch of the Greeks, εφνθ (5559.)

-Year of the Antiochian era of the world, εφμθ (5549).

-Year of the Eusebian epoch of the creation, or that used in the

Chronicon of Eusebius, and the Roman martyrology, δςπε (4285.)

-Year of the Julian period, 4767.

-Year of the world, according to Bedford and Kennedy, in their

Scripture Chronology, 4065.

-Year of the Usherian era of the world, or that used in the

English Bibles, 4061.

-Year of the world according to Scaliger, 4001. The difference

of sixty years in the era of the world, as fixed by Scaliger

and Usher, arises from the former chronologer placing the birth

of Abraham in the 70th, and the latter in the 130th year of the

life of his father Terah. For Scaliger's computation, see on

; and for Usher's computation, see on , and

, conferred with .

-Year of the minor Jewish era of the world, 3817.

-Year of the greater Rabbinical era of the world, 4416.

-Year since the Deluge, according to Archbishop Usher and the

English Bible, 2405.

-Year of the Cali Yuga, or Indian era of the Deluge, 3159.

-Year of the era of Iphitus, who re-established the Olympic

Games 338 years after their institution by Hercules, or about

884 years before the commencement of the Christian era, 997.

-Year of the two hundred and ninth Olympiad, 1. This epoch

commenced, according to the most accurate calculations of some

of the moderns, precisely 776 years before the Christian era,

and 23 years before the building of Rome; and computations of

time by it ceased about A. D. 440.

-Year from the building of Rome, according to Fabius Pictor, who

flourished about 225 years before Christ, and who is styled by

Dionysius of Halicarnassus an accurate writer, 804. (This

epoch is used by Diodorus Siculus.)

-Year from the building of Rome, according to Polybius the

historian, 808.

-Year from the building of Rome, according to Cato and the Fasti

Consulares, and adopted by Solinus, Eusebius, Dionysius of

Halicarnassus, &c., 809.

-Year from the building of Rome, according to Varro, which was

that adopted by the Roman emperors in their proclamations, by

Plutarch, Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Gellius Censorinus, Onuphrius,

Baronius, and by most modern chronologers, 810. N. B. Livy,

Cicero, Pliny, and Velleius Paterculus, fluctuate between the

Varronian and Catonian computations.

-Year of the epoch of Nabonassar, king of Babylon, after the

division of the Assyrian monarchy, or that used by Hipparchus,

by Ptotemy in his astronomical observations, by Censorinus and

others, 805. (The years of this era constantly contained 365

days, so that 1460 Julian were equal to 1461 Nabonassarean

years. This epoch commenced on the IVth of the calends of

March, (Feb. 26,) B. C. 747; and, consequently, the beginning

of the 805th year of the era of Nabonassar coincided with the

Vth of the Ides of August, (Aug. 9,) A. D. 57.

-Year of the era of the Seleucidae, or since Seleucus, one of

the generals of Alexander the Great, took Babylon and ascended

the Asiatic throne, sometimes called the Grecian era, and the

era of principalities, in reference to the division of

Alexander's empire, 369.

-Year of the Caesarean era of Antioch, 105.

-Year of the Julian era, or year since the Calendar of Numa

Pompilius, the second Roman king, was reformed by Julius

Caesar, 102.

-Year of the Spanish era, or since the second division of the

Roman provinces among the Triumviri, 95.

-Year since the defeat of Pompey, by Julius Caesar, at

Pharsalia, called by Catrou and Rouille the commencement of the

Roman empire, 105.

-Year of the Actiac, or Actian era, or proper epoch of the Roman

empire, commencing with the defeat of Antony by Augustus at

Actium, 87.

-Year from the birth of Jesus Christ, 61.

-Year of the vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 57.

-Year of the Dionysian period or Easter Cycle, 58.

-Common Golden Number, or year of the Grecian or Metonic Cycle

of nineteen years, 1, or the first common year.

-Jewish Golden Number, or year of the Rabbinical Cycle of

nineteen years, 17, or the sixth Embolismic.

-Year of the Solar Cycle, 10.

-Dominical Letter B; or, which is the same thing, the Calends of

January, (Jan. 1,) happened on the Jewish Sabbath, or our

Saturday.

-Jewish Passover, (15th of Nisan, or Abib,) Tuesday, April 5, or

on the Nones of April.

-Number of Direction, or number of days that Easter Sunday

happens after the 21st of March, 21; or the XIIth of the

Calends of April.

-Mean time of the Paschal Full Moon at Corinth, (its longitude

being twenty-three degrees to the east of London,) according to

Ferguson's Tables, which are sufficiently exact for this

purpose, April 7, or the VIIth of the Ides of April, at

forty-eight minutes and thirty-eight seconds past eight in the

evening. True time of the Paschal Full Moon at Corinth,

according to Ferguson's Tables, April 8, or the VIth of the

Ides of April, at thirty-seven minutes and one second past five

in the morning; the true time of the Paschal Full Moon being

eight hours, forty-eight minutes, and twenty-three seconds

after the mean.

-Easter Sunday, April 10, or the IVth of the Ides of April.

-Epact, or moon's age on the twenty-second of March, or the XIth

of the Calends of April, (the day on which the earliest Easter

happens,) 29.

-Year of the reign of Nero Caesar, the Roman emperor, and fifth

Caesar, 4.

-Year of Claudius Felix, the Jewish governor, 5.

-Year of the reign of Vologesus, king of the Parthians, or the

family of the Arsacidae, 8.

-Year of Caius Numidius Quadratus, governor of Syria, 7.

-Year of Ishmael, high priest of the Jews, 3.

-Year of the reign of Corbred I., king of the Scots, brother to

the celebrated Caractacus, who was carried prisoner to Rome,

but afterwards released by the emperor, 3.

-Roman consuls; Nero Caesar Augustus, (the second time,) and L.

Calpurnius Piso.



Eminent men, contemporaries with St. Paul.



-L. Annaeas Seneca, the Stoic philosopher and poet, son of M.

Annaeus Seneca, the rhetorician; born about the commencement of

the Christian era, and put to death about A. D. 65.

-Annaeus Cornutus, the Stoic philosopher, and preceptor to

Persius the satirist; flourished under Nero.

-Lucan, nephew to Seneca the philosopher; born about A. D. 29,

put to death about A. D. 65.

-Andromachus of Crete, a poet, and Nero's physician.

-T. Petronius Arbiter, of Massila, died A. D. 66.

-Aulus Persius Flaccus, the Latin poet, of Volaterrae in Italy;

died in the ninth year of the reign of Nero, aged 28.

-Dioscorides, the physician; the age in which this physician

lived is very uncertain.

-Justus, of Tiberias, in Palestine.

-Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian; born A. D. 37, died

A. D. 93.

-Silius Italicus, the poet who was several times consul; born

about A. D. 23, died in the beginning of the reign of Trajan,

aged 75.

-Valerius Flaccus, the Latin poet; flourished under Vespasian.

-C. Plinius Secundus, of Verona, born under Tiberius, flourished

under Vespasian, and died under Titus, A. D. 79, aged 56.

-Thraseus Paetus, the Stoic philosopher, famous for his

independence and generous sentiments; slain by order of Nero,

A. D. 66.

-Quintius Curtius Rufus, the historian; the time when he

flourished is uncertain, some placing him under Claudius,

others under Vespasian, and others under Trajan.

-Asconius Pedianus, the historian and annotator, died A. D. 76,

aged 85.

-Marcus Valerius Martialis, the epigrammatist; born about A. D.

29, died A. D. 104, aged 75.

-Philo-Byblius, born about A. D. 53, died A. D. 133, aged 80.

-Acusilaus, the rhetorician; flourished under Galba.

-Afer, an orator and preceptor of Quintilian, died A. D. 59.

-Afranius, the satirist, put to death by Nero, in the Pisonian

conspiracy.

-Marcus Aper, a Latin orator of Gaul, died A. D. 85.

-Babilus, the astrologer, who caused the Emperor Nero to put all

the leading men of Rome to death.

-C. Balbillus, the historian of Egypt; flourished under Nero.

-P. Clodius Quirinalis, the rhetorician, flourished under Nero.

-Fabricus, the satirist; flourished under Nero.

-Decius Junius Juvenalis, the satirist; born about A. D. 29,

died A. D. 128, aged about 100 years.

-Longinus, the lawyer, put to death by Nero.

-Plutarch, the biographer and moralist; born about A. D. 50,

died about A. D. 120, or A. D. 140, according to others.

-Polemon, the rhetorician, and master of Persius the celebrated

satirist, died in the reign of Nero.

-Seleucus, the mathematician, intimate with the Emperor

Vespasian.

-Servilius Nonianus, the Latin historian; flourished under Nero.

-Caius Cornelius Tacitus, the celebrated Roman historian; born

in the reign of Nero, and died at an advanced age in the former

part of the second century.



---------------------------



CHAPTER I.



St. Paul encourages them to trust in God in all adversities,

from a consideration of the support which he had granted them

already in times of afflictions; and expresses his strong

confidence of their fidelity, 1-7.

Mentions the heavy tribulation which he had passed through in

Asia; as also his deliverance, 8-11.

Shows in what the exultation of a genuine Christian consists,

12.

Appeals to their own knowledge of the truth of the things which

he wrote to them, 13, 14.

Mentions his purpose of visiting them; and how sincere he was

in forming it; and the reason why he did not come, as he had

purposed, 15-24.



NOTES ON CHAP. I.



Verse 1. Paul, an apostle] Paul, commissioned immediately by

Jesus Christ himself, according to the will of God, to preach the

Gospel to the Gentiles. .



In all Achaia] The whole of the Peloponnesus, or that country

separated from the main land by the Isthmus of Corinth. From this

we may learn that this epistle was not only sent to the Church at

Corinth, but to all the Churches in that country.

2愿恩惠平安从我们的父 神和主耶稣基督临到你们。
2Grace be to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Verse 2. Grace be to you and peace] See .

患难中 神赐安慰

3我们主耶稣基督的父 神是应当称颂的。他是满有怜悯的父,赐各样安慰的 神。
3Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort;
3 Verse 3. Blessed be God] Let God have universal and eternal

praise: 1. Because he is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who

is the gift of his endless love to man, . 2. Because he

is the Father of mercies, οπατηρτωνοικτιρμων, the source whence

all mercy flows, whether it respect the body or the soul, time or

eternity; the source of tender mercy; for so the word implies.

.

And, 3. Because he is the God of all comfort-the Fountain whence

all consolation, happiness, and bliss flow to angels and to men.

4我们在一切患难中, 神都安慰我们,使我们能用他所赐的安慰,去安慰那些在各样患难中的人。
4 Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.
4 Verse 4. Who comforteth us] Who shows himself to be the God

of tender mercy, by condescending to notice us, who have never

deserved any good at his hand; and also the God of all

consolation, by comforting us in all our tribulation-never leaving

us a prey to anxiety, carking care, persecution, or temptation;

but, by the comforts of his Spirit, bearing us up in, through, and

above, all our trials and difficulties.



That we may be able to comfort them] Even spiritual comforts

are not given us for our use alone; they, like all the gifts of

God, are given that they may be distributed, or become the

instruments of help to others. A minister's trials and comforts

are permitted and sent for the benefit of the Church. What a

miserable preacher must he be who has all his divinity by study

and learning, and nothing by experience! If his soul have not

gone through all the travail of regeneration, if his heart have

not felt the love of God shed abroad in it by the Holy Ghost, he

can neither instruct the ignorant nor comfort the distressed. See

.

5我们既然多受基督所受的痛苦,就靠着基督多得安慰。
5For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ.
5 Verse 5. The sufferings of Christ] Suffering endured for the

cause of Christ: such as persecutions, hardships, and privations

of different kinds.



Our consolation also aboundeth] We stood as well, as firmly,

and as easily, in the heaviest trial, as in the lightest; because

the consolation was always proportioned to the trial and

difficulty. Hence we learn, that he who is upheld in a slight

trial need not fear a great one; for if he be faithful, his

consolation shall abound, as his sufferings abound. Is it not as

easy for a man to lift one hundred pounds' weight, as it is for an

infant to lift a few ounces? The proportion of strength destroys

the comparative difficulty.

6如果我们遭遇患难,那是要使你们得着安慰,得着拯救;如果我们得到安慰,也是要使你们得到安慰。这安慰使你们能够忍受我们所受那样的痛苦。
6 And whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation, which is effectual in the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer: or whether we be comforted, it is for your consolation and salvation.
6 Verse 6. And whether we be afflicted] .



Which is effectual] There is a strange and unusual variation

in the MSS. and versions in this passage. Perhaps the whole

should be read thus: For if we be afflicted, it is for your

encouragement and salvation; and if we be comforted, it is also

for your encouragement, which exerted itself by enduring the same

sufferings which we also suffer.



This transposition of the middle and last clauses is authorized

by the best MSS. and versions. The meaning seems to be this:

While ye abide faithful to God, no suffering can be prejudicial to

you; on the contrary, it will be advantageous; God having your

comfort and salvation continually in view, by all the

dispensations of his providence: and while you patiently endure,

your salvation is advanced; sufferings and consolations all

becoming energetic means of accomplishing the great design, for

all things work together for good to them that love God. See the

variations in Griesbach.

7我们对你们的盼望是坚定的,因为知道你们既然一同受痛苦,也必照样同得安慰。
7And our hope of you is stedfast, knowing, that as ye are partakers of the sufferings, so shall ye be also of the consolation.
7 Verse 7. And our hope of you is steadfast] We have no doubt

of your continuing in the truth; because we see that you have such

a full, experimental knowledge of it, that no sufferings or

persecutions can turn you aside. And we are sure that, as ye

suffer, so shall ye rejoice.

8弟兄们,我们在亚西亚遭受的患难,我们很想让你们知道。那时我们受到了过于我们所能忍受的压力,甚至活下去的希望都没有了,
8 For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life:
8 Verse 8. Our trouble which came to us in Asia] To what part

of his history the apostle refers we know not: some think it is to

the Jews lying in wait to kill him, ; others, to the

insurrection raised against him by Demetrius and his fellow

craftsmen, ;

others, to his fighting with beasts at Ephesus, ,

which they understand literally; and others think that there is a

reference here to some persecution which is not recorded in any

part of the apostle's history.



We were pressed out of measure, above strength] The original

is exceedingly emphatic: καθυπερβοληνεβαρηθημενυπερδυναμιν.

we were weighed down beyond what is credible, even beyond what any

natural strength could support. There is no part of St. Paul's

history known to us which can justify these strong expressions,

except his being stoned at Lystra; which if not what is here

intended, the facts to which he refers are not on record. As

Lystra was properly in Asia, unless he mean Asia Minor, and his

stoning at Lystra did most evidently destroy his life, so that his

being raised was an effect of the miraculous power of God; he

might be supposed to refer to this. ,

&c. But it is very likely that the reference is to some terrible

persecution which he had endured some short time before his

writing this epistle; and with the outlines of which the

Corinthians had been acquainted.

9而且断定自己是必死的了;然而,这正是要我们不倚靠自己,只倚靠那叫死人复活的 神。
9 But we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead:
9 Verse 9. We had the sentence of death in ourselves] The

tribulation was so violent and overwhelming, that he had no hope

of escaping death.



That we should not trust in ourselves] The tribulation was of

such a nature as to take away all expectation of help but from GOD

alone.



But in God which raiseth the dead] This is very like the

business at Lystra; and would be sufficient to fix the apostle's

reference to that fact could the time and other circumstances

serve.

10他救我们脱离了那极大的死亡,而且他还要救我们,我们希望他将来仍要救我们。
10Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver us;
10 Verse 10. Who delivered us from so great a death] For the

circumstances were such that no human power could avail.



Will yet deliver us] Having had such a signal evidence of His

interposition already, we will confide in him with an unshaken

confidence that he will continue to support and deliver.

11请你们一同用祷告支持我们,好使许多人为着我们所蒙的恩献上感谢。这恩是借着许多人的代求而得到的。
11 Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift bestowed upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf.
11 Verse 11. Ye also helping together by prayer] Even an apostle

felt the prayers of the Church of God necessary for his comfort

and support. What innumerable blessings do the prayers of the

followers of God draw down on those who are the objects of them!



The gift bestowed-by the means of many persons] The blessings

communicated by means of their prayers.



Thanks may be given by many] When they who have prayed hear

that their prayers are so particularly answered, then all that

have prayed will feel themselves led to praise God for his

gracious answers. Thus, the prayers of many obtain the gift; and

the thanksgiving of many acknowledge the mercy.



The gift, or χαρισμα, which the apostle mentions, was his

deliverance from the dangers and deaths to which he was exposed.

保罗计划再到哥林多

12我们引以为荣的,就是我们处世为人,是本着 神的圣洁和真诚,不是靠着人的聪明,而是靠着 神的恩典,对你们更是这样,这是我们的良心可以作证的。
12 For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward.
12 Verse 12. For our rejoicing is this] ηκαυχησις. Our

boasting, exultation, subject of glorying.



The testimony of our conscience] μαρτυριοντηςσυνειδησεως.

That testimony or witness which conscience, under the light and

influence of the Spirit of God, renders to the soul of its state,

sincerity, safety, &c.



In simplicity] απλοτητι. from α, denoting unity or

together, and πελω, to be; or from α, negative, and

πολυς, many; not compounded, having one end in view, having

no sinister purpose, no by end to answer. Instead of απλοτητι,

many MSS. and versions have αγιοτητι, holiness.



In godly sincerity] ειλικρινειαθεου. The sincerity of God:

that is, such a sincerity as comes from his work in the soul.

ειλικρινεια, sincerity, and ειλικρινης, sincere, come from

ειλη, the splendour, or bright shining of the sun; and here

signifies such simplicity of intention, and purity of affection,

as can stand the test of the light of God shining upon it, without

the discovery being made of a single blemish or flaw.



Not with fleshly wisdom] The cunning and duplicity of man, who

is uninfluenced by the Spirit of God, and has his secular

interest, ease, profit, pleasure, and worldly honour in view.



But by the grace of God] Which alone can produce the

simplicity and godly sincerity before mentioned, and inspire the

wisdom that comes from above.



We have had our conversation] ανεστραφημεν. We have conducted

ourselves. The word properly refers to the whole tenor of a man's

life-all that he does says, and intends; and the object or end he

has in view, and in reference to which he speaks, acts, and

thinks; and is so used by the best Greek writers. The verb

αναστρεφω is compounded of ανα, again, and στρεφω, to turn;

a continual coming back again to the point from which he set out;

a circulation; beginning, continuing, and ending every thing to

the glory of God; setting out with Divine views, and still

maintaining them; beginning in the Spirit, and ending in the

Spirit; acting in reference to God, as the planets do in reference

to the sun, deriving all their light, heat, and motion from him;

and incessantly and regularly revolving round him. Thus acted

Paul; thus acted the primitive Christians; and thus must every

Christian act who expects to see God in his glory. The word

conversation is not an unapt Latinism for the Greek term, as

conversatio comes from con, together, and verto, I turn; and is

used by the Latins in precisely the same sense as the other is by

the Greeks, signifying the whole of a man's conduct, the tenor and

practice of his life: and conversio astrorum, and conversiones

caelestes, is by CICERO used for the course of the stars and

heavenly bodies.--De Leg. c. 8: Caelum una conversione atque

eadem, ipse circum se torquetur et vertitur.--CIC de Univers.,

c. 8: "The heaven itself is, with one and the same revolution,

whirled about, and revolves round itself."



In the world] Both among Jews and Gentiles have we always

acted as seeing Him who is invisible.



More abundantly to you-ward.] That is, We have given the

fullest proof of this in our conduct towards you; YOU have

witnessed the holy manner in which we have always acted; and GOD

is witness of the purity of the motives by which we have been

actuated; and our conscience tells us that we have lived in

uprightness before him.

13我们现在写给你们的,不外是你们可以宣读、可以明白的。
13For we write none other things unto you, than what ye read or acknowledge; and I trust ye shall acknowledge even to the end;
13 Verse 13. Than what ye read] Viz. In the first epistle which

he had sent them.



Or acknowledge] To be the truth of God; and which he hoped

they would continue to acknowledge, and not permit themselves to

be turned aside from the hope of the Gospel.

14正如你们对我们已经有些认识,我盼望你们可以彻底明白:在我们的主耶稣的日子,我们是你们的光荣,你们也是我们的光荣。
14As also ye have acknowledged us in part, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye also are ours in the day of the Lord Jesus.
14 Verse 14. Have acknowledged us in part] απομερους may

signify here not in part, but some of you; and it is evident, from

the distracted state of the Corinthians, and the opposition raised

there against the apostle, that it was only a part of them that

did acknowledge him, and receive and profit by his epistles and

advice.



We are your rejoicing, &c.] You boast of us as the ministers

of Christ through whom ye have believed; as we boast of you as

genuine converts to the Christian faith, and worthy members of the

Church of God.

15我既然有这样的信念,就打算先到你们那里,使你们再一次得到恩惠,
15And in this confidence I was minded to come unto you before, that ye might have a second benefit;
15 Verse 15. And in this confidence] Under the conviction or

persuasion that this is the case; that ye exult in us, as we do in

you;



I was minded] I had purposed to come to you before, as he had

intimated, ; for he had intended to call on them in his

way from Macedonia, but this purpose he did not fulfil; and he

gives the reason, .



A second benefit] He had been with them once, and they had

received an especial blessing in having the seed of life sown

among them by the preaching of the Gospel; and he had purposed to

visit them again that they might have a second blessing, in having

that seed watered. Instead of χαριν, grace or benefit,

several MSS. read χαραν joy, pleasure; but the word grace or

benefit, seems to express the apostle's meaning best.

16然后经过你们那里,往马其顿去,再从马其顿回到你们中间,让你们给我送行往犹太去。
16And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again out of Macedonia unto you, and of you to be brought on my way toward Judaea.
16 Verse 16. To pass by you into Macedonia] He had purposed to

go to Macedonia first, and then from Macedonia return to them, and

probably winter in Corinth. Therefore we must understand the δι

υμων, by you, as implying that he would sail up the AEgean Sea,

leaving Corinth to the west; though he might have taken it in his

way, and have gone by land through Greece up to Macedonia. Some

think that the meaning is, that he purposed to take Achaia in his

way to Macedonia, without calling at Corinth; but Achaia was out

of his way considerably, and he could scarcely go through Achaia

without passing close by Corinth. I consider the words,

therefore, as implying that he purposed not to call at Corinth at

that time, but to pass by it, as before stated.

17我这样决定,难道是反复不定吗?我所决定的,难道是体贴肉体而定,使我忽是忽非吗?
17 When I therefore was thus minded, did I use lightness? or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be yea yea, and nay nay?
17 Verse 17. Did I use lightness?] When I formed this purpose,

was it without due consideration? and did I abandon it through

fickleness of mind?



That with me there should be yea, &c.] That I should act as

carnal men, who change their purposes, and falsify their

engagements, according as may seem best to their secular interest?

18 神是信实的,我们向你们所传的道并不是“是”而又“非”的,
18 But as God is true, our word toward you was not yea and nay.
18 Verse 18. But as God is true] Setting the God of truth before

my eyes, I could not act in this way: and as sure as he is true,

so surely were my purposes sincere; and it was only my uncertainty

about your state that induced me to postpone my visit.

See .

19因为我、西拉和提摩太,在你们中间所宣扬的耶稣基督, 神的儿子,并不是“是”而又“非”的,在他总是“是”的。
19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, even by me and Silvanus and Timotheus, was not yea and nay, but in him was yea.
19 Verse 19. For the Son of God, &c.] If I could have changed my

purpose through carnal or secular interests then I must have had

the same interest in view when I first preached the Gospel to you,

with Silvanus and Timotheus. But did not the whole of our conduct

prove that we neither had, nor could have such interest in view?

20因为 神的一切应许,在基督里都是“是”的,为此我们借着他说“阿们”,使荣耀归于 神。
20 For all the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto the glory of God by us.
20 Verse 20. For all the promises of God] Had we been light,

fickle, worldly-minded persons; persons who could only be bound by

our engagements as far as comported with our secular interest;

would God have confirmed our testimony among you? Did we not lay

before you the promises of God? And did not God fulfil those

promises by us-by our instrumentality, to your salvation and his

own glory? God is true; therefore every promise of God is true;

and consequently each must have its due fulfilment. God will not

make use of trifling, worldly men, as the instruments by which he

will fulfil his promises; but he has fulfilled them by us;

therefore we are just and spiritual men, else God would not have

used us.



In him are yea, and in him amen] All the promises which God

has made to mankind are yea-true in themselves, and

amen-faithfully fulfilled to them who believe in Christ Jesus.

The promises are all made in reference to Christ; for it is only

on the Gospel system that we can have promises of grace; for it

is only on that system that we can have mercy. Therefore, the

promise comes originally by Christ, and is yea; and it has its

fulfilment through Christ, and is amen; and this is to the glory

of God, by the preaching of the apostles.



From what the apostle says here, and the serious and solemn

manner in which he vindicates himself, it appears that his enemies

at Corinth had made a handle of his not coming to Corinth,

according to his proposal, to defame his character, and to

depreciate his ministry; but he makes use of it as a means of

exalting the truth and mercy of God through Christ Jesus; and of

showing that the promises of God not only come by him, but are

fulfilled through him.

21那在基督里坚定我们和你们,又膏抹我们的,就是 神。
21Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God;
21 Verse 21. Now he which stablisheth us with you] It is God

that has brought both us and you to this sure state of salvation

through Christ; and he has anointed us, giving us the

extraordinary influences of the Holy Ghost, that we might be able

effectually to administer this Gospel to your salvation. Through

this unction we know and preach the truth, and are preserved by it

from dissimulation and falsity of every kind.

22他在我们身上盖了印,就是赐圣灵在我们心里作凭据。
22Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts.
22 Verse 22. Who hath also sealed us] Not only deeply impressed

His truth and image upon our hearts; but, by the miraculous gifts

of the Holy Spirit, attested the truth of our extraordinary

unction or calling to the ministry.



And given the earnest of the Spirit] τοναρραβωνατου

πνευματος. From this unction and sealing we have a clear

testimony in our souls, the Divine Spirit dwelling constantly in

us, of our acceptance with God, and that our ways please him. The

αρραβων of the apostle is the same as the erabon of Moses,

,

which we there translate pledge. The word properly signifies an

earnest of something promised; a part of the price agreed for

between a buyer and seller, by giving and receiving of which the

bargain was ratified; or a deposit, which was to be restored when

the thing promised was given. From the use of the term in Genesis,

which the apostle puts here in Greek letters, we may at once see

his meaning above, and in ; the Holy Spirit being an

earnest in the heart, and an earnest of the promised inheritance

means a security given in hand for the fulfilment of all God's

promises relative to grace and eternal life. We may learn from

this, that eternal life will be given in the great day to all who

can produce the arrhabon, or pledge. He who is found then

with the earnest of God's Spirit in his heart, shall not only be

saved from death, but have that eternal life of which it is the

pledge, the earnest, and the evidence. Without this arrhabon

there can be no glory. See the whole case of Judah and Tamar,

, &c., and the notes there.

23我呼求 神给我作证,我没有再到哥林多来,是要宽容你们。
23 Moreover I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth.
23 Verse 23. I call God for a record upon my soul] The apostle

here resumes the subject which he left , and in the most

solemn manner calls God to witness, and consequently to punish, if

he asserted any thing false, that it was through tenderness to

them that he did not visit Corinth at the time proposed. As there

were so many scandals among them, the apostle had reason to

believe that he should be obliged to use the severe and

authoritative part of his function in the excommunication of those

who had sinned, and delivering them over to Satan for the

destruction of the flesh, &c.; but to give them space to amend,

and to see what effect his epistle might produce, (not having

heard as yet from them,) he proposed to delay his coming. It is

plain, as several commentators have observed, 1. That St. Paul's

doctrine had been opposed by some of Corinth, . His

apostleship questioned, , and . 2. Himself

despised, and treated as a person who, because of the consciousness

he had of his own worthlessness, dared not to come, .

His letters, say they, are weighty and powerful-full of boastings

of what he can and what he will do; but his bodily presence is

weak, and his speech contemptible, . 3. This being the

state in which his reputation was then at Corinth, and he having

promised to come to them, , he could not but think it

necessary to vindicate his failing them by reasons which should be

both convincing and kind, such as those contained in the preceding

verses. See Dodd and others.

24我们并不是要辖制你们的信仰,而是要作你们的同工,使你们喜乐,因为你们在信仰上已经站稳了。
24 Not for that we have dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your joy: for by faith ye stand.
24 Verse 24. Not for that we have dominion over your faith]

I will not come to exercise my apostolical authority in punishing

them who have acted sinfully and disorderly; for this would be to

several of you a cause of distress, the delinquents being friends

and relatives; but I hope to come to promote your joy, to increase

your spiritual happiness, by watering the seed which I have

already sowed. This I think to be the meaning of the apostle.

It is certain that the faith which they had already received was

preached by the apostles; and, therefore, in a certain sense,

according to our meaning of the term, they had a right to propound

to them the articles which they ought to believe; and to forbid

them, in the most solemn manner, to believe any thing else as

Christianity which was opposed to those articles. In that sense

they had dominion over their faith; and this dominion was

essential to them as apostles. But shall any others-persons who

are not apostles, who are not under the unerring and infallible

influence of the Holy Ghost, arrogate to themselves this dominion

over the faith of mankind; not only by insisting on them to

receive new doctrines, taught nowhere by apostles or apostolic

men; but also threatening them with perdition if they do not

credit doctrines which are opposed to the very spirit and letter

of the word of God? These things men, not only not apostles, but

wicked, profligate, and ignorant, have insisted on as their right.

Did they succeed? Yes, for a time; and that time was a time of

thick darkness; a darkness that might be felt; a darkness

producing nothing but misery, and lengthening out and deepening

the shadow of death. But the light of God shone; the Scriptures

were read; those vain and wicked pretensions were brought to the

eternal touchstone: and what was the consequence? The splendour

of truth pierced, dissipated, and annihilated them for ever!



British Protestants have learned, and Europe is learning that

the SACRED WRITINGS, and they alone, contain what is necessary to

faith and practice; and that no man, number of men, society,

church, council, presbytery, consistory, or conclave, has dominion

over any man's faith. The word of God alone is his rule, and to

its Author he is to give account of the use he has made of it.



For by faith ye stand.] You believe not in us, but in GOD. We

have prescribed to you on his authority, what you are to believe;

you received the Gospel as coming from Him, and ye stand in and by

that faith.



THE subjects in this chapter which are of the most importance

have been carefully considered in the preceding notes. That alone

of the apostle's oath has been passed by with general observations

only. But, that it is an oath has been questioned by some. An

oath, properly speaking, is an appeal to God, as the Searcher of

the hearts for the truth of what is spoken; and an appeal to Him,

as the Judge of right and wrong, to punish the falsity and

perjury. All this appears to be implied in the awful words above:

I call God for a record upon my soul; and this is not the only

place in which the apostle uses words of the same import.

See , and the note on this latter passage.



On this subject I have spoken pretty much at large at the end

of the sixth chapter of Deuteronomy; but as it appears that there

I have made a mistake in saying that the people called Quakers

hold up their hand in a court of justice, when called upon to make

affirmation, I take this opportunity to correct that expression,

and to give the form of the oath, for so the law considers it,

which the statute (7 and 8 of William III., cap. 34, sec. 1)

required of this sect of Christians: "I, A. B., do declare in the

presence of almighty God, the witness of the truth of what I say."

Though this act was only intended at first to continue in force

for seven years, yet it was afterwards made perpetual. See Burn,

vol. iii., page 654.



A more solemn and more awful form of an oath was never

presented nor taken by man than this; no kissing of the book,

holding up of the hand, nor laying hand on the Bible, can add

either solemnity or weight to such an oath! It is as awful and

as binding as any thing can be; and him, who would break this, no

obligation can bind.



But the religious people in question found their consciences

aggrieved by this form, and made application to have another

substituted for it; in consequence of this the form has undergone

a little alteration, and the solemn affirmation which is to stand

instead of an oath taken in the usual manner, as finally settled

by the 8th Geo., cap. 6, is the following: "I, A. B., do solemnly,

sincerely, and truly declare and affirm." Burn, vol. iii., page

656.



It may be well to examine this solemn affirmation, and see

whether it does not contain the essential principles of an oath;

and whether it should not be reputed by all people, as being equal

to any oath taken in the common form, and sufficiently binding on

every conscience that entertains the belief of a God, and the

doctrine of a future state. The word solemnly refers to the

presence and omniscience of GOD, before whom the affirmation is

made; and the word sincerely to the consciousness that the person

has of the uprightness of his own soul, and the total absence of

guile and deceit; and the word truly refers to the state of

his understanding as to his knowledge of the fact in question.

The word declare refers to the authority requiring, and the

persons before whom this declaration is made; and the term affirm

refers back to the words solemnly, sincerely, and truly, on which

the declaration and affirmation are founded. This also contains

all that is vital to the spirit and essence of an oath; and the

honest man, who takes or makes it, feels that there is no form

used among men by which his conscience can be more solemnly bound.

As to the particular form, as long as it is not absurd or

superstitious, it is a matter of perfect indifference as to the

thing itself as long as the declaration or affirmation contains

the spirit and essence of an oath; and that the law considers this

as an oath, is evident from the following clause: "That if any one

be convicted of having wilfully or falsely made this declaration

or affirmation, such offender shall incur the same penalties and

forfeitures as are enacted against persons convicted of wilful and

corrupt perjury." I believe it may be said with strict truth,

that few instances can be produced where this affirmation, which

I must consider as a most solemn oath, was corruptly made by any

accredited member of that religious society for whose peace and

comfort it was enacted. And when this most solemn affirmation is

properly considered, no man of reason will say that the persons

who take it are not bound by a sufficient and available oath.