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Total 32 verses in Chapter 18: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 |

 

Ezek.18.5
a that…: Heb. judgment and justice
 
Ezek.18.10
b robber: or, breaker up of an house
c that doeth…: or, that doeth to his brother besides any of these
 
Ezek.18.13
d blood: Heb. bloods
 
Ezek.18.16
e hath not…: Heb. hath not pledged the pledge, or, taken to pledge
 
Ezek.18.30
f yourselves: or, others
 
Ezek.18.32
g yourselves: or, others
 
ChiNCVsKJVClarke

作恶必死

1 耶和华的话临到我说:
1The word of the LORD came unto me again, saying,
1 CHAPTER XVIII



The Jews, in Ezekiel's time, complained of God's dealing hardly

with them in punishing them for the sins of their forefathers,

1, 2;

their temporal calamities having been long threatened as the

consequence of the national guilt, (, &c.;)

and, from the general complexion of this chapter, it appears

that the Jews so interpreted the second commandment of the

Decalogue and other passages of like import, as if the sins of

the forefathers were visited upon the children, independently

of the moral conduct of the latter, not only in this world, but

in that which is to come. To remove every foundation for such

an unworthy idea of the Divine gorcrnment, God assures them,

with an oath, that he had no respect of persons, 3, 4;

strongly intimating that the great mysteries in Providence,

(mysterious only on account of the limited capacity of man,)

are results of the most impartial administration of justice;

and that this would be particularly manifested in the rewards

and punishments of another life; when every ligament that at

present connects societies and nations together shall be

dissolved, and each person receive according to his work, and

bear his own burden. This is illustrated by a variety of

examples: such as that of a just or righteous man, 5-9;

his wicked son, 10-13;

and again the just son of this wicked person, 14-20.

Then a wicked man repenting, and finding mercy, whose former

wickedness shall be no impediment to his salvation, 21-23;

and a righteous man revolting, and dying in his sins, whose

former righteousness shall be of no avail, 24.

The conduct of the Divine Providence is then vindicated, 25-29;

and all persons, without any exception, most earnestly exhorted

to repentance, 30, 31;

because the Lord hath no pleasure in the death of the sinner,

32.

As the whole of this chapter is taken up with the illustration

of a doctrine nearly connected with the comfort of man, and the

honour of the Divine government, the prophet, with great

propriety, lays aside his usual mode of figure and allegory,

and treats his subject with the utmost plainness and

perspicuity.



NOTES ON CHAP. XVIII

2“论到以色列地,你们为什么引用这俗语说:‘父亲吃了酸葡萄,儿子的牙酸倒了’呢?
2What mean ye, that ye use this proverb concerning the land of Israel, saying, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge?
2 Verse 2. The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's

teeth are set on edge?] We have seen this proverb already,

, &c., and have considered its general meaning. But

the subject is here proposed in greater detail, with a variety of

circumstances, to adapt it to all those cases to which it should

apply. It refers simply to these questions: How far can the moral

evil of the parent be extended to his offspring? And, Are the

faults and evil propensities of the parents, not only transferred

to the children, but punished in them? Do parents transfer their

evil nature, and are their children punished for their offences?

3我指着我的永生起誓:你们在以色列中必不再引用这俗语了。这是主耶和华的话。
3As I live, saith the Lord GOD, ye shall not have occasion any more to use this proverb in Israel.
3 Verse 3. As I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not have

occasion any more to use this proverb in Israel.] I will now, by

this present declaration, settle this question for ever. And hence

God has sworn to what follows. After this, who will dare to doubt

the judgment pronounced?

4看哪!所有的人都是属我的,作父亲的怎样属我,作儿子的也怎样属我,唯独犯罪的,才会灭亡。
4Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die.
4 Verse 4. All souls are mine] Equally so; I am the Father of the

spirits of all flesh, and shall deal impartially with the whole.



The soul that sinneth, it shall die.] None shall die for

another's crimes, none shall be saved by another's

righteousness. Here is the general judgment relative to the

righteousness and unrighteousness of men, and the influence of

one man's state on that of another; particularly in respect to

their moral conduct.

行义必生

5“人若是公义,又行公道和正直的事:




5 ¶ But if a man be just, and do that which is lawful and right,a
5 Verse 5. If a man be just, and do that which is lawful and

right] If he be just or holy within, and do what is according to

law and equity. What is meant by this, is immediately specified.

6他不在山上吃祭肉,眼目也不仰望以色列家的偶像,不玷污邻舍的妻子,不亲近在经期中的妇人;
6And hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, neither hath defiled his neighbour's wife, neither hath come near to a menstruous woman,
6 Verse 6. 1. Hath not eaten upon the mountains] Idolatrous

worship was generally performed on mountains and hills; and those

who offered sacrifices feasted on the sacrifice, and thus held

communion with the idol.



2. Neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols] Has paid them

no religious adoration; has trusted in them for nothing, and has

not made prayer nor supplication before them.



3. Neither hath defiled his neighbour's wife] Has had no

adulterous connexion with any woman; to which idolatrous feasts

and worship particularly led.



4. Neither hath come nigh to a menstruous woman] Has abstained

from the use of the marriage-bed during the periodical

indisposition of his wife. This was absolutely forbidden by the

law; and both the man and the woman who disobeyed the command were

to be put to death, . For which

Calmet gives this reason: "It has been believed, and experience

confirms it, that the children conceived at such times are either

leprous, or monsters, or deformed by their diminutiveness, or by

the disproportion of their members." There are other reasons for

this law, should those of the learned commentator be found

invalid.

7不欺压任何人,把欠债人的抵押归还;他不抢夺人的物件,却把自己的食物给饥饿的人,把衣服给赤身的人穿着;
7And hath not oppressed any, but hath restored to the debtor his pledge, hath spoiled none by violence, hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment;
7 Verse 7. 5. Hath not oppressed any] Has not used his power or

influence to oppress, pain, or injure another.



6. Hath restored to the debtor his pledge] Has carefully

surrendered the pawn or pledge when its owner came to redeem it.

As the pledge is generally of more worth than that for which it is

pledged, an unprincipled man will make some pretence to keep it;

which is highly abominable in the sight of God.



7. Hath spoiled none by violence] Either by robbery or personal

insult. For a man may be spoiled both ways.



8. Hath given his bread to the hungry] Has been kind-hearted and

charitable; especially to them that are in the deepest want.



9. Hath covered the naked with a garment] Has divided both his

bread and his clothing with the necessitous. These are two

branches of the same root.

8他借东西给人不取利息,也不多要,他使自己的手远离罪恶,在人与人之间施行诚实的判断;
8He that hath not given forth upon usury, neither hath taken any increase, that hath withdrawn his hand from iniquity, hath executed true judgment between man and man,
8 Verse 8. 10. Hath not given forth upon usury]

beneshech lo yitten. nasach signifies to bite; usury is

properly so termed, because it bites into and devours the

principal. Usury signifies, with us, exacting unlawful interest

for money; and taking the advantage of a man's necessities to

advance him cash on exorbitant profit. This bites the receiver

in his property, and the lender in his salvation.



11. Neither hath taken any increase] In lending has not required

more than was lent; and has not taken that product of the cash

lent, which was more than the value for its use. This may be a

part of the tenth article.



12. That hath withdrawn his hand from iniquity] Never associates

with those who act contrary to justice and equity; his hand or

influence being never found among evil workers.



13. Hath executed true judgment between man and man] Being

neither swayed by prejudice, fear, nor favour.



These thirteen points concern his social and civil relations.

9他遵行我的律例,谨守我的典章,行事诚实,这人是个义人,他必定存活。这是主耶和华的宣告。
9Hath walked in my statutes, and hath kept my judgments, to deal truly; he is just, he shall surely live, saith the Lord GOD.
9 Verse 9. Hath walked in my statutes] Not only acknowledging them

to be right, but acting according to them. Especially in every

thing that relates to my worship, changing nothing, neglecting

nothing.



And hath kept my judgments, to deal truly] Has attended to my

Divine direction, both with respect to things forbidden, and

things commanded. These concern men in their religious conduct.



He is just] tsaddik hu. He is a righteous

man; he has given to all their due; he has abstained from every

appearance of evil, and done that which was lawful and right in

the sight of God.



He shall surely live] He has lived to me, and he shall live with

me.

父善子恶罚子

10“他若是生一个儿子,是个强暴的人,流人的血,又向兄弟行上述任何一件恶事




10 ¶ If he beget a son that is a robber, a shedder of blood, and that doeth the like to any one of these things,b, c
10 Verse 10. If he beget a son] Who is the reverse of the above

righteous character, according to the thirteen articles already

specified and explained.

11(虽然他父亲并没有作这样的事):他在山上吃祭肉,又玷污邻舍的妻子;
11And that doeth not any of those duties, but even hath eaten upon the mountains, and defiled his neighbour's wife,
12他欺压困苦和贫穷的人,抢夺人的物件,没有把抵押品归还,眼目仰望偶像,并行可憎的事;
12Hath oppressed the poor and needy, hath spoiled by violence, hath not restored the pledge, and hath lifted up his eyes to the idols, hath committed abomination,
13他借东西给人要收利息,也向人多要,这样的人能存活吗?他必不能存活;他行了这一切可憎的事,必要灭亡;他的罪(“罪”原文作“血”)要归到他身上。
13Hath given forth upon usury, and hath taken increase: shall he then live? he shall not live: he hath done all these abominations; he shall surely die; his blood shall be upon him.d
13 Verse 13. Shall he then live?] Because his father was a

righteous man, shall the father's holiness be imputed to him? No!



He shall surely die; his blood shall be upon him.] He shall

suffer for his own crimes.

子善父恶罚父

14“他若生一个儿子,这儿子看见他父亲所犯的一切罪,他虽然看见了,却不照样去作:




14 ¶ Now, lo, if he beget a son, that seeth all his father's sins which he hath done, and considereth, and doeth not such like,
14 Verse 14. Now, lo, if he beget a son that seeth all his father's

sins-and considereth] Lays to heart the evil of his father's life,

and the dreadful consequences of a life of rebellion against God.



And doeth not such like] Is quite a different man in moral

feeling and character; and acts up to the thirteen points

already laid down.

15他不在山上吃祭肉,眼目不仰望以色列家的偶像,不玷污邻舍的妻子;
15That hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, hath not defiled his neighbour's wife,
16不欺压任何人,不索取抵押品,不抢夺人的物件,却把自己的食物给饥饿的人,把衣服给赤身的人穿着;
16Neither hath oppressed any, hath not withholden the pledge, neither hath spoiled by violence, but hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment,e
17他不伸手欺压困苦人,借东西给人不取利息,也不多要;他遵守我的典章,遵行我的律例,这人就必不因他父亲的罪孽而灭亡;他必要存活。
17That hath taken off his hand from the poor, that hath not received usury nor increase, hath executed my judgments, hath walked in my statutes; he shall not die for the iniquity of his father, he shall surely live.
17 Verse 17. He shall not die for the iniquity of his father] He

shall no more be affected by his father's crimes, than his father

was benefited by his grandfather's righteousness.

18至于他的父亲,因为他勒索,抢夺兄弟的物件,在自己的同胞中行不善的事,所以他必因自己的罪孽而灭亡。
18As for his father, because he cruelly oppressed, spoiled his brother by violence, and did that which is not good among his people, lo, even he shall die in his iniquity.
19“你们还问:‘儿子为什么不担当父亲的罪孽呢?’儿子若行正直和公义的事,谨守遵行我的一切律例,就必存活。




19 ¶ Yet say ye, Why? doth not the son bear the iniquity of the father? When the son hath done that which is lawful and right, and hath kept all my statutes, and hath done them, he shall surely live.
20唯独犯罪的,才会灭亡;儿子必不担当父亲的罪孽,父亲也必不担当儿子的罪孽;义人的义必归他自己,恶人的恶也必归他自己。
20The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him.
20 Verse 20. The soul that sinneth, it shall die.] Hitherto we have

had to do with the simple cases of the righteous and the wicked;

of him who lived and died a holy man, and of him who lived and

died a wicked man. But there are two cases behind: 1. That of the

wicked man, who repents and turns to God. 2. That of the

righteous man, who backslides, and does not return to God by

repentance. On both these cases God decides thus:-

先恶后善主不念旧恶

21“恶人若回转,离开他所犯的一切罪,谨守我的一切律例,行正直和公义的事,就必存活,不致灭亡。
21But if the wicked will turn from all his sins that he hath committed, and keep all my statutes, and do that which is lawful and right, he shall surely live, he shall not die.
21 Verse 21. But if the wicked will turn from all his sins] And

afterwards walk according to the character of the righteous

already specified; shall he find mercy, and be for ever saved?

YES.

22他所犯的一切罪过都不会被记念,作控诉他的理由;他必因自己所行的义而存活。
22All his transgressions that he hath committed, they shall not be mentioned unto him: in his righteousness that he hath done he shall live.
22 Verse 22. All his transgressions] Shall be so completely

forgiven by God's mercy, that they shall not be even mentioned to

him; and if he live and die in this recovered state, he shall live

with God to all eternity. And why? Hear the reason:-

23难道我喜悦恶人死亡吗?我不是喜悦他回转离开他所行的而存活吗?这是主耶和华的宣告。
23Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should die? saith the Lord GOD: and not that he should return from his ways, and live?
23 Verse 23. Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should

die?] No! That is foreign to him whose name is love, and whose

nature is mercy. On the contrary he "wills that he should return

from his evil ways and live."



And if God can have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, he

cannot have made a decree to abandon him to the evil of his

nature, and then damn him for what he could not avoid: for as God

can do nothing with which he is not pleased, so he can decree

nothing with which he is not pleased. But he is "not pleased with

the death of a sinner," therefore he cannot have made a decree to

bring him to this death.

先善后恶主不念前善

24“义人若转离他的义去行恶,照着恶人所行一切可憎的事而行,他能存活吗?他所行的一切义都不会被记念;他必因他所行不忠的事和他所犯的罪而灭亡。




24 ¶ But when the righteous turneth away from his righteousness, and committeth iniquity, and doeth according to all the abominations that the wicked man doeth, shall he live? All his righteousness that he hath done shall not be mentioned: in his trespass that he hath trespassed, and in his sin that he hath sinned, in them shall he die.
24 Verse 24. When the righteous turneth away from his

righteousness] Here is the second case. Can a man who was once

holy and pure, fall away so as to perish everlastingly? YES. For

God says, "If he turn away from his righteousness;" not his

self-righteousness, the gloss of theologians: for God never

speaks of turning away from that, for, in his eyes, that is a

nonentity. There is no righteousness or holiness but what

himself infuses into the soul of man, and as to

self-righteousness, i.e., a man's supposing himself to be

righteous when he has not the life of God in his soul, it is the

delusion of a dark and hardened heart; therefore it is the real

righteous principle and righteous practice that God speaks of

here. And he tells us, that a man may so "turn away from this,"

and so "commit iniquity," and "act as the wicked man," that his

righteousness shall be no more mentioned to his account, than the

sins of the penitent backslider should be mentioned to his

condemnation; and "in the sin that he," this once righteous man,

"hath sinned, and in the trespass that he hath trespassed, in them

shall he die." O, how awful a termination of a life once

distinguished for righteousness and true holiness! So then, God

himself informs us that a righteous man may not only fall foully,

but fall finally. But to such righteous persons the devil will

ever preach, "Ye shall not surely die; ye shall be as God." Touch,

taste, and handle; ye cannot ultimately fall. Thus we find, by the

manner of treating these two cases, that God's way is equal,

; just, merciful, and impartial. And to prove this, he

sums up his conduct in the above cases, in the following verses,

26-29. And then, that the "wicked may not die in

his sins," and that the "backslider may return and find mercy," he

thus exhorts:-

主行事公平

25“你们还说:‘主所行的不公平。’以色列家啊,你们要听!我所行的哪里不公平呢?岂不是你们所行的不公平吗?




25 ¶ Yet ye say, The way of the Lord is not equal. Hear now, O house of Israel; Is not my way equal? are not your ways unequal?
26义人若转离他的义去行恶,他就必因此灭亡;他必因着他所行的不义灭亡。
26When a righteous man turneth away from his righteousness, and committeth iniquity, and dieth in them; for his iniquity that he hath done shall he die.
27还有,恶人若回转离开他所行的恶,行正直公义的事,他就可以使自己的性命存活。
27Again, when the wicked man turneth away from his wickedness that he hath committed, and doeth that which is lawful and right, he shall save his soul alive.
28因为他思量了,就转离他所犯的一切罪过,所以他必然存活,不致灭亡。
28Because he considereth, and turneth away from all his transgressions that he hath committed, he shall surely live, he shall not die.
29但以色列家还说:‘主所行的不公平。’以色列家啊,我所行的哪里不公平呢?岂不是你们所行的不公平吗?
29Yet saith the house of Israel, The way of the Lord is not equal. O house of Israel, are not my ways equal? are not your ways unequal?
30“因此,以色列家啊,我必照着你们各人所行的审判你们。你们回转吧!离开你们的一切罪过吧!免得罪孽成为你们的绊脚石。这是主耶和华的宣告。
30Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, every one according to his ways, saith the Lord GOD. Repent, and turn yourselves from all your transgressions; so iniquity shall not be your ruin.f
30 Verse 30. Repent, and turn yourselves from all your

transgressions] There is still life; still a God that has no

pleasure in the death of a sinner, one who is ever ready to give

his Holy Spirit to all them that ask him; therefore "repent and

turn, so iniquity shall not be your ruin."

31你们要把你们所犯的一切罪过弃掉,为自己造一个新的心和新的灵。以色列家啊,你们为什么要灭亡呢?




31 ¶ Cast away from you all your transgressions, whereby ye have transgressed; and make you a new heart and a new spirit: for why will ye die, O house of Israel?
31 Verse 31. Cast away] With a holy violence, dash away every

transgression and incentive to it.



Make you a new heart] Call upon God for it, and he will give it:

for as sure as you earnestly call on God through Christ to save

you, so surely you shall be saved; and the effect will so speedily

follow, that God is pleased to attribute that in some sort to

yourselves, which is done by his grace alone; because ye

earnestly call upon him for it, come in the right way to receive

it, and are determined never to rest till you have it.



For why will ye die] Who should you go to hell while the kingdom

of God is open to receive you? Why should you be the devil's

slaves, when ye may be Christ's freemen! WHY WILL YE DIE? Every

word is emphatic. Why-show God or man one reason. Will-obstinacy

alone,-a determination not to be saved, or a voluntary

listlessness about salvation,-can prevent you. Ye-children of so

many mercies, fed and supported by a kind God all your life; ye,

who are redeemed by the blood of Jesus Christ; ye, who have made

many promises to give up yourselves to God; ye, who have been

dedicated to the ever-blessed Trinity, and promised to renounce

the devil and all his works, the pomps and vanities of this wicked

world, and all the sinful lusts of the flesh; why will YE die?

Die!-what is this? A separation from God and the glory of his

power for ever! Die!-forfeiting all the purposes for which your

immortal souls were made! Die-to know what the worm is that never

dieth, and what that fire is which is never quenched! Why will ye

die?

劝离恶从善

32“我不喜悦任何人灭亡,所以你们要回转,得以存活。这是主耶和华的宣告。”
32For I have no pleasure in the death of him that dieth, saith the Lord GOD: wherefore turn yourselves, and live ye.g
32 Verse 32. For I have no pleasure] God repeats what he had so

solemnly declared before. Can ye doubt his sincerity? his ability?

his willingness? the efficacy of the blood of his covenant?



Wherefore turn yourselves, and live ye.] Reader, now give God

thy heart.



Though every man comes into the world with a fallen nature-a

soul infected with sin, yet no man is damned on that account. He

who refuses that grace which pardons sin and heals infected

nature, who permits the evil principle to break out into

transgression, and continues and dies in his iniquity and sin,

and will not come unto Christ that he may have life; he, and he

only, goes to perdition. Nor will the righteousness of a parent or

relation help his sinful soul: no man can have more grace than is

necessary to save himself; and none can have that, who does not

receive it through Christ Jesus. It is the mercy of God in Christ

which renders the salvation of a sinner possible; and it is that

mercy alone which can heal the backslider. The atoning blood blots

out all that is past; the same blood cleanses from all

unrighteousness. Who believes so as to apply for this redemption?

Who properly thanks God for having provided such a Saviour?