The word of the LORD
came again unto me, saying,
This chapter describes, with great force and elegance, the ruin
of Egypt and all her allies by the Chaldeans under
with an amplification of the distress of the principal cities
of Egypt on that occasion, 12-19.
The remaining verses are a short prophecy relating to the same
event, and therefore annexed to the longer one preceding,
although this was predicted sooner, 20-26.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXX
Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD
; Howl ye, Woe worth the day!
Verse 2. Howl ye, Wo worth the day!
] My Old MS. Bible,-Soule gee, woo woo to the day! heylilu, hah laiyom
! "Howl ye,
Alas for the day!" The reading in our present text is taken from Coverdale's
Bible, 1535. The expressions signify that a most
dreadful calamity was about to fall on Egypt and the neighbouring
countries, called here the "time of the heathen," or of the nations
; the day of calamity to them. They are afterwards
specified, Ethiopia, Libya, Lydia, and Chub
, and the mingled people
, probably persons from different nations, who had followed
the ill fortune of Pharaoh-hophra or Pharaoh-apries, when he fled
from Amasis, and settled in Upper Egypt.
For the day is
near, even the day of the LORD is
near, a cloudy day; it shall be the time of the heathen.
And the sword shall come upon Egypt, and great pain shall be in Ethiopia, when the slain shall fall in Egypt, and they shall take away her multitude, and her foundations shall be broken down.a
Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.b, c
Verse 5. Lydia
] This place is not well known. The Ludim
contiguous to Egypt, Ge 10:13
] The Cubians, placed by Ptolemy in the Mareotis
probably instead of vechub
, "and Chub," we should read vechol
, "and ALL the men of the land," &c. The Septuagint
"the Persians and the Cretans."
Thus saith the LORD
; They also that uphold Egypt shall fall; and the pride of her power shall come down: from the tower of Syene shall they fall in it by the sword, saith the Lord GOD
And they shall be desolate in the midst of the countries that are
desolate, and her cities shall be in the midst of the cities that are
Verse 7. Shall be desolate
] All these countries shall be
desolated, and the places named shall be chief in these
And they shall know that I am
, when I have set a fire in Egypt, and when
all her helpers shall be destroyed.e
In that day shall messengers go forth from me in ships to make the careless Ethiopians afraid, and great pain shall come upon them, as in the day of Egypt: for, lo, it cometh.
Verse 9. Messengers go forth from me in ships
] Ships can ascend
the Nile up to Syene or Essuan, by the cataracts
; and when
Nebuchadnezzar's vessels went up, they struck terror into the
Ethiopians. They are represented here as the "messengers of God."
Thus saith the Lord GOD
; I will also make the multitude of Egypt to cease by the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon.
He and his people with him, the terrible of the nations, shall be brought to destroy the land: and they shall draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the land with the slain.
And I will make the rivers dry, and sell the land into the hand of the wicked: and I will make the land waste, and all that is therein, by the hand of strangers: I the LORD
have spoken it
Verse 12. I will make the rivers dry
] As the overflowing
Nile was the grand cause of fertility to Egypt, the drying
or preventing that annual inundation
, must be the cause of dearth,
famine, &c. By rivers
, we may understand the various canals
from the Nile to carry water into the different parts of the land.
When the Nile did not rise to its usual height these canals were
Thus saith the Lord GOD
; I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause their
images to cease out of Noph; and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt: and I will put a fear in the land of Egypt.
Verse 13. Their images to cease out of Noph
] Afterwards Memphis
and now Cairo
. This was the seat of Egyptian idolatry;
the place where Apis
was particularly worshipped. No more a prince of the land of Egypt
] Not one, from that time
to the present day. See Clarke on Eze 29:14
And I will make Pathros desolate, and will set fire in Zoan, and will execute judgments in No.h
Verse 14. I will make Pathros desolate
] See the preceding
chapter, Eze 29:14
, the ancient capital of Egypt. No.
, or Thebes
, the city of Jupiter.
And I will pour my fury upon Sin, the strength of Egypt; and I will cut off the multitude of No.i
Verse 15. My fury upon Sin
, a strong city of Egypt, on
the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
And I will set fire in Egypt: Sin shall have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, and Noph shall have
The young men of Aven and of Pi–beseth shall fall by the sword: and these cities
shall go into captivity.j, k
Verse 17. Aven
] Or On, the famous Heliopolis
, or city of the
, by a slight alteration of the
letters. It is situated on the eastern branch of the Nile, towards
At Tehaphnehes also the day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength shall cease in her: as for her, a cloud shall cover her, and her daughters shall go into captivity.l
Verse 18. Tehaphnehes
] Called also Tahapanes
, Jer 2:16
is the Pelusian Daphne
. Break there the yokes
] The sceptres. Nebuchadnezzar broke the
sceptre of Egypt when he confirmed the kingdom to Amasis
, who had
rebelled against Apries
Thus will I execute judgments in Egypt: and they shall know that I am
¶ And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the first month
, in the seventh day
of the month, that
the word of the LORD
came unto me, saying,
Verse 20. In the eleventh year, in the first
month, in the seventh day
] This was the eleventh
year of the captivity of
Jeconiah, and the date here answers to April 26, A.M. 3416; a
prophecy anterior by several years to that already delivered. In
collecting the writings of Ezekiel, more care was taken to put all
that related to one subject
together, than to attend to chronological arrangement
Son of man, I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and, lo, it shall not be bound up to be healed, to put a roller to bind it, to make it strong to hold the sword.
Verse 21. I have broken the arm of Pharaoh
] Perhaps this may
refer to his defeat by Nebuchadnezzar, when he was coming with the
Egyptian army to succour Jerusalem.
Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD
; Behold, I am
against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and will break his arms, the strong, and that which was broken; and I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand.
Verse 22. I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand.
the arm is broken, the sword will naturally fall. But these
expressions show that the Egyptians would be rendered wholly
useless to Zedekiah, and should never more recover their political
strength. This was the case from the time of the rebellion of
And I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries.
And I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and put my sword in his hand: but I will break Pharaoh's arms, and he shall groan before him with the groanings of a deadly wounded man
But I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and the arms of Pharaoh shall fall down; and they shall know that I am
, when I shall put my sword into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall stretch it out upon the land of Egypt.
And I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and disperse them among the countries; and they shall know that I am
Verse 26. I will scatter the Egyptians
] Several fled with Apries
to Upper Egypt; and when Nebuchadnezzar wasted the country, he
carried many of them to Babylon. See on Eze 29:12