Select Commentary| Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible| 结| Chapter 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 |
Total 23 verses in Chapter 38: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 |


a the chief…: or, prince of the chief
b Libya: or, Phut
c think…: or, conceive a mischievous purpose
d safely: or, confidently
e To take…: Heb. To spoil the spoil, and to prey the prey
f midst: Heb. navel
g by: Heb. by the hand of
h steep…: or, towers, or, stairs


1 耶和华的话临到我说:
1And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

The sublime prophecy contained in this and the following

chapter relates to Israel's victory over Gog, and is very

obscure. It begins with representing a prodigious armarnent of

many nations combined together under the conduct of Gog, with

the intention of overwhelming the Jews, after having been for

some time resettled in their land subsequent to their return

from the Babylonish captivity, 1-9.

These enemies are farther represented as making themselves sure

of the spoil, 10-13.

But in this critical conjuncture when Israel, to all human

appearance, was about to be swallowed up by her enemies, God

most graciously appears, to execute by terrible judgments the

vengeance threatened against these formidable adversaries of

his people, 14-16.

The prophet, in terms borrowed from human passions, describes,

with awful emphasis, the fury of Jehovah as coming up to his

face; and the effects of it so dreadful, as to make all the

animate and inanimate creation tremble, and even to convulse

with terror the whole frame of nature, 17-23.


2Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him,a
2 Verse 2. Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog]

This is allowed to be the most difficult prophecy in the Old

Testament. It is difficult to us, because we know not the king nor

people intended by it: but I am satisfied they were well known by

these names in the time that the prophet wrote.

I have already remarked in the introduction to this

book that there are but two opinions on this subject that appear

to be at all probable: 1. That which makes GOG Cambyses, king of

Persia; and, 2. That which makes him ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, king

of Syria. And between these two (for one or other is supposed to

be the person intended) men are much divided.

Calmet, one of the most judicious commentators that ever wrote

on the Bible, declares for Cambyses; and supports his opinion, in

opposition to all others, by many arguments.

Mr. Mede supposes the Americans are meant who were originally

colonies of the Scythians, who were descendants of Magog, son of

Japheth. Houbigant declares for the Scythians, whose neighbours

were the people of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, that is the Russians,

Muscovites, and Tybareni or Cappadocians. Several eminent critics

espouse this opinion. Rabbi David Kimchi says the Christians and

Turks are meant: and of later opinions there are several,

founded in the ocean of conjecture. Calmet says expressly, that

GOG is Cambyses, king of Persia, who on his return from the land

of Egypt, died in Judea. The Rev. David Martin, pastor of the

Waloon church at Utrecht, concludes, after examining all previous

opinions, that Antiochus Epiphanes, the great enemy of the

Israelites, is alone intended here; and that Gog, which signifies

covered, is an allusion to the well-known character of

Antiochus, whom historians describe as an artful, cunning, and

dissembling man. See .

Magog he supposes to mean the country of Syria. Of this opinion

the following quotation from Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. v., c. 23,

seems a proof; who, speaking of Coele-Syria, says: Coele habet

Apamiam Marsyia amne divisam a Nazarinorum Tetrarchia. Bambycem

quam alio nomine Hierapolis vocatur, Syris vero Magog.

"Coele-Syria has Apamia separated from the tetrarchy of the

Nazarenes by the river Marsyia; and Bambyce, otherwise called

Hierapolis; but by the Syrians, MAGOG."

I shall at present examine the text by this latter opinion.

Chief prince of Meshech and Tubal] These probably mean the

auxiliary forces, over whom Antiochus was supreme; they were the

Muscovites and Cappadocians.

3And say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal:
4And I will turn thee back, and put hooks into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed with all sorts of armour, even a great company with bucklers and shields, all of them handling swords:
4 Verse 4. I will turn thee back] Thy enterprise shall fail.

5Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya with them; all of them with shield and helmet:b
5 Verse 5. Persia] That a part of this country was tributary to

Antiochus, see 1Macc 3:31.

Ethiopia, and Libya] That these were auxiliaries of Antiochus is

evident from : "The Libyans and Ethiopians shall be at

his steps."

6Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee.
6 Verse 6. Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah] The

Cimmerians and Turcomanians, and other northern nations.-Calmet.

7Be thou prepared, and prepare for thyself, thou, and all thy company that are assembled unto thee, and be thou a guard unto them.

8 ¶ After many days thou shalt be visited: in the latter years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, and is gathered out of many people, against the mountains of Israel, which have been always waste: but it is brought forth out of the nations, and they shall dwell safely all of them.
8 Verse 8. In the latter years thou shalt come] This was fulfilled

about four hundred years after.-Martin. The expedition of Cambyses

against Egypt was about twelve years after the return of the Jews

from Babylon.-Calmet.

9Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm, thou shalt be like a cloud to cover the land, thou, and all thy bands, and many people with thee.
9 Verse 9. Thou shalt ascend and come like a storm] It is

observable that Antiochus is thus spoken of by Daniel, :

The king of the north-Antiochus, shall come against him (the

king of the south is the king of Egypt) like a whirlwind.


10Thus saith the Lord GOD; It shall also come to pass, that at the same time shall things come into thy mind, and thou shalt think an evil thought:c
10 Verse 10. Shall things come into thy mind, and thou shalt think

an evil thought] Antiochus purposed to invade and destroy Egypt,

as well as Judea; see . This

Calmet interprets of Cambyses, his cruelties in Egypt, and his

evil design to destroy the Israelites.

11And thou shalt say, I will go up to the land of unwalled villages; I will go to them that are at rest, that dwell safely, all of them dwelling without walls, and having neither bars nor gates,d
12To take a spoil, and to take a prey; to turn thine hand upon the desolate places that are now inhabited, and upon the people that are gathered out of the nations, which have gotten cattle and goods, that dwell in the midst of the land.e, f
12 Verse 12. To take a spoil-and a prey] When Antiochus took

Jerusalem he gave the pillage of it to his soldiers, and spoiled

the temple of its riches, which were immense. See Joseph. WAR, B.

i. c. 1.

13Sheba, and Dedan, and the merchants of Tarshish, with all the young lions thereof, shall say unto thee, Art thou come to take a spoil? hast thou gathered thy company to take a prey? to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to take a great spoil?
13 Verse 13. Sheba, and Dedan] The Arabians, anciently great

plunderers; and Tarshish, the inhabitants of the famous isle of

Tartessus, the most noted merchants of the time. They are here

represented as coming to Antiochus before he undertook the

expedition, and bargaining for the spoils of the Jews. Art thou

come to take a spoil, to carry away silver and gold, cattle and



14 ¶ Therefore, son of man, prophesy and say unto Gog, Thus saith the Lord GOD; In that day when my people of Israel dwelleth safely, shalt thou not know it?
15And thou shalt come from thy place out of the north parts, thou, and many people with thee, all of them riding upon horses, a great company, and a mighty army:
16And thou shalt come up against my people of Israel, as a cloud to cover the land; it shall be in the latter days, and I will bring thee against my land, that the heathen may know me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog, before their eyes.
16 Verse 16. When I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog] By the

defeat of his troops under Lysias, his general. 1Mac 3:32, 33,

&c., and .


17Thus saith the Lord GOD; Art thou he of whom I have spoken in old time by my servants the prophets of Israel, which prophesied in those days many years that I would bring thee against them?g
17 Verse 17. Art thou he of whom I have spoken in old time] This

prophecy concerning Antiochus and the Jews was delievered about

four hundred years before the events took place.-Martin. Calmet

maintains that Cambyses is spoken of, and refers to ancient

prophecies, especially Isa. xiv., xv., xx., xxi.

18And it shall come to pass at the same time when Gog shall come against the land of Israel, saith the Lord GOD, that my fury shall come up in my face.
19For in my jealousy and in the fire of my wrath have I spoken, Surely in that day there shall be a great shaking in the land of Israel;
20So that the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the field, and all creeping things that creep upon the earth, and all the men that are upon the face of the earth, shall shake at my presence, and the mountains shall be thrown down, and the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground.h
21And I will call for a sword against him throughout all my mountains, saith the Lord GOD: every man's sword shall be against his brother.
21 Verse 21. I will call for a sword against him] Meaning Judas

Maccabeus, who defeated his army under Lysias, making a horrible

carnage.-Martin. Cambyses had no wars in the mountains of Israel.

22And I will plead against him with pestilence and with blood; and I will rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon the many people that are with him, an overflowing rain, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone.
22 Verse 22. Great hailstones, fire, and brimstone.] These are

probably figurative expressions, to signify that the whole tide of

the war should be against him, and that his defeat and slaughter

should be great. Abp. Newcome supposes all the above prophecy

remains yet to be fulfilled. Where such eminent scribes are

divided, who shall decide!

23Thus will I magnify myself, and sanctify myself; and I will be known in the eyes of many nations, and they shall know that I am the LORD.