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Ezek.4.2
a battering…: chief leaders
 
Ezek.4.3
b an…: or, a flat plate, or, slice
 
Ezek.4.6
c each…: Heb. a day for a year, a day for a year
 
Ezek.4.8
d from one…: Heb. from thy side to thy side
 
Ezek.4.9
e fitches: or, spelt
 
ChiNCVsKJVClarke

耶路撒冷被困的象征

1 “人子啊!你要拿一块砖头,放在你面前,在上面刻一座城,代表耶路撒冷。
1Thou also, son of man, take thee a tile, and lay it before thee, and pourtray upon it the city, even Jerusalem:
1 CHAPTER IV



Ezekiel delineates Jerusalem, and lays siege to it, as a type

of the manner in which the Chaldean army should surround that

city, 1-3.

The prophet commanded to lie on his left side three hundred and

ninety days, and on his right side forty days, with the

signification, 4-8.

The scanty and coarse provision allowed the prophet during his

symbolical siege, consisting chiefly of the worst kinds of

grain, and likewise ill-prepared, as he had only cow's dung for

fuel, tended all to denote the scarcity of proviswn, fuel, and

every necessary of life, which the Jews should experience during

the siege of Jerusalem. 9-17.



NOTES ON CHAP. IV



Verse 1. Take thee a tile] A tile, such as we use in covering

houses, will give us but a very inadequate notion of those used

anciently; and also appear very insufficient for the figures which

the prophet was commanded to pourtray on it. A brick is most

undoubtedly meant; yet, even the larger dimensions here, as to

thickness, will not help us through the difficulty, unless we

have recourse to the ancients, who have spoken of the dimensions

of the bricks commonly used in building. Palladius, De Re Rustica,

lib. vi. c. 12, is very particular on this subject:-Sint vero

lateres longitudine pedum duorum, latitudine unius, altitudine

quatuor unciarum. "Let the bricks be two feet long, one foot

broad, and four inches thick." Edit. Gesner, vol. iii. p. 144. On

such a surface as this the whole siege might be easily pourtrayed.

There are some brick-bats before me which were brought from the

ruins of ancient Babylon, which have been made of clay and straw

kneaded together and baked in the sun; one has been more than four

inches thick, and on one side it is deeply impressed with

characters; others are smaller, well made, and finely impressed on

one side with Persepolitan characters. These have been for inside

or ornamental work; to such bricks the prophet most probably

alludes.



But the tempered clay out of which the bricks were made might be

meant here; of this substance he might spread out a sufficient

quantity to receive all his figures. The figures were, 1.

Jerusalem. 2. A fort. 3. A mount. 4. The camp of the enemy. 5.

Battering rams, and such like engines, round about. 6. A wall

round about the city, between it and the besieging army.

2然后安放围城设施,建造围城高墙,筑起攻城土垒,摆列兵营,四周架起攻城锤。
2And lay siege against it, and build a fort against it, and cast a mount against it; set the camp also against it, and set battering rams against it round about.a
2 Verse 2. Battering rams] carim. This is the earliest

account we have of this military engine. It was a long beam with a

head of brass, like the head and horns of a ram, whence its name.

It was hung by chains or ropes, between two beams, or three legs,

so that it could admit of being drawn backward and forward some

yards. Several stout men, by means of ropes, pulled it as far back

as it could go, and then, suddenly letting it loose, it struck

with great force against the wall which it was intended to batter

and bring down. This machine was not known in the time of Homer,

as in the siege of Troy there is not the slightest mention of

such. And the first notice we have of it is here, where we see

that it was employed by Nebuchadnezzar in the siege of Jerusalem,

A.M. 3416. It was afterwards used by the Carthaginians at the

siege of Gades, as Vitruvius notes, lib. x. c. 19, in which he

gives a circumstantial account of the invention, fabrication, use,

and improvement of this machine. It was for the want of a machine

of this kind, that the ancient sieges lasted so long; they had

nothing with which to beat down or undermine the walls.

3你又要拿一个铁的煎盘,放在你和城的中间当作铁墙。你要面向着城,象征城要被围困,你就是围攻那城的。这要作以色列家的预兆。
3Moreover take thou unto thee an iron pan, and set it for a wall of iron between thee and the city: and set thy face against it, and it shall be besieged, and thou shalt lay siege against it. This shall be a sign to the house of Israel.b
3 Verse 3. Take thou unto thee an iron pan] machabath, a

flat plate or slice, as the margin properly renders it: such as

are used in some countries to bake bread on, called a griddle or

girdle, being suspended above the fire, and kept in a proper

degree of heat for the purpose. A plate like this, stuck

perpendicularly in the earth, would show the nature of a wall much

better than any pan could do. The Chaldeans threw such a wall

round Jerusalem, to prevent the besieged from receiving any

succours, and from escaping from the city.



This shall be a sign to the house of Israel.] This shall be an

emblematical representation of what shall actually take place.

被掳期限的象征

4“你要向左边侧卧,承担以色列家的罪孽。你向左边侧卧多少日子,你担当他们的罪孽也是多少日子。
4Lie thou also upon thy left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it: according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon it thou shalt bear their iniquity.
4 Verse 4. Lie thou also upon thy left side] It appears that all

that is mentioned here and in the following verses was done, not

in idea, but in fact. The prophet lay down on his left side upon

a couch to which he was chained, , for

three hundred and ninety days; and afterwards he lay in the same

manner, upon his right side, for forty days. And thus was

signified the state of the Jews, and the punishment that was

coming upon them. 1. The prophet himself represents the Jews. 2.

His lying, their state of depression. 3. His being bound, their

helplessness and captivity. 4. The days signify years, a day for a

year; during which they were to bear their iniquity, or the

temporal punishment due to their sins. 5. The three hundred and

ninety days, during which he was to lie on his left side, and bear

the iniquity of the house of Israel, point out two things: the

first, The duration of the siege of Jerusalem. Secondly, The

duration of the captivity off the ten tribes, and that of Judah.

6. The prophet lay three hundred and ninety days upon his left

side, and forty days upon his right side, in all four hundred and

thirty days. Now Jerusalem was besieged the ninth year of the

reign of Zedekiah, , and was not taken till the

eleventh year of the same prince, . But properly

speaking, the siege did not continue the whole of that time; it

was interrupted; for Nebuchadnezzar was obliged to raise it, and

go and meet the Egyptians, who were coming to its succour. This

consumed a considerable portion of time. After he had defeated the

Egyptians, he returned and recommenced the siege, and did not

leave it till the city was taken. We may, therefore, conclude that

the four hundred and thirty days only comprise the time in which

the city was actually besieged, when the city was encompassed with

walls of circumvallation, so that the besieged were reduced to a

state of the utmost distress. The siege commenced the tenth day of

the tenth month of the ninth year of Zedekiah; and it was taken on

the ninth day of the fourth month of the eleventh year of the

same king. Thus the siege had lasted, in the whole, eighteen

months, or five hundred and ten days. Subtract for the time that

Nebuchadnezzar was obliged to interrupt the siege, in order to go

against the Egyptians, four months and twenty days, or one hundred

and forty days, and there will remain four hundred and thirty

days, composed of 390+40=430. See Calmet on this place. See also

at the end of this chapter. .

5我已经给你定了日子的数目,就是三百九十天,等于他们作孽的年数,你要在这些日子担当以色列家的罪孽。
5For I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, according to the number of the days, three hundred and ninety days: so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the house of Israel.
6这些日子满了以后,你要再向右边侧卧,担当犹大家的罪孽,我已经给你定了四十天,一天等于一年。
6And when thou hast accomplished them, lie again on thy right side, and thou shalt bear the iniquity of the house of Judah forty days: I have appointed thee each day for a year.c
6 Verse 6. Forty days] Reckon, says Archbishop Newcome, near

fifteen years and six months in the reign of Manasseh, two years

in that of Amon, three months in that of Jehoahaz, eleven years in

that of Jehoiakim, three months and ten days in that of

Jehoiachin, and eleven years in that of Zedekiah; and there arises

a period of forty years, during which gross idolatry was practiced

in the kingdom of Judah. Forty days may have been employed in

spoiling and desolating the city and the temple.

7你要面向着被围困的耶路撒冷,赤露着膀臂,说预言攻击这城。
7Therefore thou shalt set thy face toward the siege of Jerusalem, and thine arm shall be uncovered, and thou shalt prophesy against it.
8我要用绳子把你捆绑起来,使你不能转身,直等到你围困城的日子满了。
8And, behold, I will lay bands upon thee, and thou shalt not turn thee from one side to another, till thou hast ended the days of thy siege.d

城困粮绝的象征

9“你要拿小麦、大麦、豆子、扁豆、粟米和粗麦,放在一个器皿里,给自己做饼。在你侧卧的三百九十天里,你都要吃这些饼。




9 ¶ Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet, and fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof, according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon thy side, three hundred and ninety days shalt thou eat thereof.e
9 Verse 9. Take thou also unto thee wheat] In times of scarcity,

it is customary in all countries to mix several kinds of coarser

grain with the finer, to make it last the longer. This mashlin,

which the prophet is commanded to take, of wheat, barley, beans,

lentiles, millet, and fitches, was intended to show how scarce the

necessaries of life should be during the siege.

10你所吃的食物要有一定分量,每天二百三十克,要在指定的时候吃。
10And thy meat which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day: from time to time shalt thou eat it.
10 Verse 10. Twenty shekels a day] The whole of the above grain,

being ground, was to be formed into one mass, out of which he was

to make three hundred and ninety loaves; one loaf for each day;

and this loaf was to be of twenty shekels in weight. Now a shekel,

being in weight about half an ounce, this would be ten ounces of

bread for each day; and with this water to the amount of one sixth

part of a hin, which is about a pint and a half of our measure.

All this shows that so reduced should provisions be during the

siege, that they should be obliged to eat the meanest sort of

aliment, and that by weight, and their water by measure; each

man's allowance being scarcely a pint and a half, and ten ounces,

a little more than half a pound of bread, for each day's support.

11你喝的水也要有一定分量,每天半公升,要在指定的时候喝。
11Thou shalt drink also water by measure, the sixth part of an hin: from time to time shalt thou drink.
12你吃这些饼,要像吃烙的大麦饼一样,但要用人粪在众人面前烧烤。”
12And thou shalt eat it as barley cakes, and thou shalt bake it with dung that cometh out of man, in their sight.
12 Verse 12. Thou shalt bake it with dung] Dried ox and cow dung is

a common fuel in the east; and with this, for want of wood and

coals, they are obliged to prepare their food. Indeed, dried

excrement of every kind is gathered. Here, the prophet is to

prepare his bread with dry human excrement. And when we know that

this did not come in contact with the bread, and was only used to

warm the plate, (see ,) on which the bread was laid over

the fire, it removes all the horror and much of the disgust. This

was required to show the extreme degree of wretchedness to which

they should be exposed; for, not being able to leave the city to

collect the dried excrements of beasts, the inhabitants during the

siege would be obliged, literally, to use dried human ordure for

fuel. The very circumstances show that this was the plain fact of

the case. However, we find that the prophet was relieved from

using this kind of fuel, for cow's dung was substituted at his

request. See .

13耶和华说:“以色列人在我赶他们去的列国中,也要这样吃不洁净的食物。”
13And the LORD said, Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their defiled bread among the Gentiles, whither I will drive them.
14我说:“主耶和华啊!我从来没有玷污过自己。我从小到现在都没有吃过已经死去的,或是野兽撕裂的动物,不洁净的肉从没有进过我的口。”
14Then said I, Ah Lord GOD! behold, my soul hath not been polluted: for from my youth up even till now have I not eaten of that which dieth of itself, or is torn in pieces; neither came there abominable flesh into my mouth.
14 Verse 14. My soul hath not been polluted] There is a remarkable

similarity between this expostulation of the prophet and that of

St. Peter, .

15于是他对我说:“你看,我准你用牛粪代替人粪,你可以在牛粪上烤你的饼。”
15Then he said unto me, Lo, I have given thee cow's dung for man's dung, and thou shalt prepare thy bread therewith.
16他又对我说:“人子啊,我要断绝耶路撒冷的粮食。他们要满心忧虑,吃配给的口粮;十分惊惶,喝配给的水。
16Moreover he said unto me, Son of man, behold, I will break the staff of bread in Jerusalem: and they shall eat bread by weight, and with care; and they shall drink water by measure, and with astonishment:
16 Verse 16. I will break the staff of bread] They shall be

besieged till all the bread is consumed, till the famine becomes

absolute; see : "And on the ninth of the

fourth month, the famine prevailed in the city; and THERE WAS NO

BREAD for the people of the land." All this was accurately

foretold, and as accurately fulfilled.



Abp. Newcome on observes: "This number of years will

take us back, with sufficient exactness, from the year in which

Jerusalem was sacked by Nebuchadnezzar to the first year of

Jeroboam's reign, when national idolatry began in Israel. The

period of days seems to predict the duration of the siege by the

Babylonians, , deducting from the year

five months and twenty-nine days, mentioned , the

time during which the Chaldeans were on their expedition against

the Egyptians; see ." This amounts nearly to the same as

that mentioned above.

17他们缺粮缺水,各人都必惊惶,因自己的罪孽衰弱而死。”
17That they may want bread and water, and be astonied one with another, and consume away for their iniquity.