Select Commentary| Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible| 利| Chapter 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 |
Total 47 verses in Chapter 11: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 |


a wherein…: Heb. a gathering together of waters
b hath…: Heb. doth multiply feet
c yourselves abominable: Heb. your souls, etc


1 耶和华对摩西和亚伦说:
1And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,

Laws concerning clean and unclean animals, 1, 2.

Of QUADRUPEDS, those are clean which divide the hoof and

chew the cud, 3.

Those to be reputed unclean which do not divide the hoof,

though they chew the cud, 4-6.

Those to be reputed unclean also which, though they divide the

hoof, do not chew the cud, 7.

Whosoever eats their flesh, or touches their carcasses, shall

be reputed unclean, 8.

Of FISH, those are clean, and may be eaten which have fins and

scales, 9.

Those which have not fins and scales to be reputed unclean,


Of FOWLS, those which are unclean, 13-21.

Of INSECTS, the following may be eaten: the bald locust,

beetle, and grasshopper, 22.

All others are unclean and abominable, their flesh not to be

eaten, nor their bodies touched, 23-25.

Farther directions relative to unclean beasts, 26-28.

Of REPTILES, and some small quadrupeds, those which are

unclean, 29, 39.

All that touch them shall be unclean, 31;

and the things touched by their dead carcasses are unclean

also, 32-35.

Large fountains, or pits of water, are not defiled by their

carcasses, provided a part of the water be drawn out, 36.

Nor do they defile seed by accidentally touching it, provided

the water which has touched their flesh do not touch or moisten

the seed, 37, 38.

A beast that dieth of itself is unclean, and may not be touched

or eaten, 39, 40.

All creeping things are abominable, 41-44.

The reason given for these laws, 45-47.


Verse 1. And the Lord spake unto Moses] In the preceding

chapter the priests are expressly forbidden to drink wine; and

the reason for this law is given also, that they might be able at

all times to distinguish between clean and unclean, and be

qualified to teach the children of Israel all the statutes which

the Lord had spoken, ; for as inebriation unfits a

person for the regular performance of every function of life, it

must be especially sinful in those who minister in holy things,

and to whom the teaching of the ignorant, and the cure of souls

in general, are intrusted.

Scheuchzer has remarked that no Christian state has made any

civil law against drunkenness, (he must only mean the German

states, for we have several acts of parliament against it in

England,) and that it is only punished by contempt. "Custom,"

says he, "that tyrant of the human race, not only permits it, but

in some sort authorizes the practice, insomuch that we see

priests and ministers of the Church ascend the pulpit in a state

of intoxication, judges seat themselves upon the benches,

physicians attend their patients, and others attempt to perform

the different avocations of life, in the same disgraceful

state."-Physic. Sacr., vol. iii., p. 64.

This is a horrible picture of German manners; and while we

deplore the extensive ravages made by this vice, and the disgrace

with which its votaries are overwhelmed, we have reason to thank

God that it very rarely has ever appeared in the pulpit, and

perhaps was never once seen upon the bench, in our own country.

Having delivered the law against drinking wine, Moses proceeds

to deliver a series of ordinances, all well calculated to prevent

the Israelites from mixing with the surrounding nations, and

consequently from being contaminated by their idolatry. In chap.

xi. he treats of unclean MEATS. In chap. xii., xiii., xiv., and

xv., he treats of unclean PERSONS, GARMENTS, and DWELLINGS. In

chap. xvi. he treats of the uncleanness of the PRIESTS and the

PEOPLE, and prescribes the proper expiations and sacrifices for

both. In chap. xvii. he continues the subject, and gives

particular directions concerning the mode of offering, &c. In

chap. xviii. he treats of unclean matrimonial connections. In

chap. xix. he repeats sundry laws relative to these subjects, and

introduces some new ones. In chap. xx. he mentions certain

uncleannesses practised among the idolatrous nations, and

prohibits them on pain of death. In chap. xxi. he treats of the

mourning, marriages, and personal defects of the priests, which

rendered them unclean. And in chap. xxii. he speaks of unclean

sacrifices, or such as should not be offered to the Lord. After

this, to the close of the book, many important and excellent

political and domestic regulations are enjoined, the whole

forming an eccleslastico-political system superior to any thing

the world ever saw.

Bishop Wilson very properly observes that, "by these laws of

clean and unclean animals, &c., God did keep this people

separated from the idolatrous world: and this is a standing

proof, even to the present day, of the Divine authority of these

Scriptures; for no power or art of man could have obliged so

great and turbulent a nation to submit to such troublesome

precepts as the Jews always have submitted to, had they not been

fully convinced, from the very first, that the command was from

God, and that it was to be obeyed at the peril of their souls."

2Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
3Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.
3 Verse 3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed]

These two words mean the same thing-a divided hoof, such as that

of the ox, where the hoof is divided into two toes, and each toe

is cased with horn.

Cheweth the cud] Ruminates; casts up the grass, &c., which had

been taken into the stomach for the purpose of mastication.

Animals which chew the cud, or ruminate, are provided with two,

three or four stomachs. The ox has four: in the first or

largest, called the ventriculus or paunch, the food is collected

without being masticated, the grass, &c., being received into it

as the beast crops it from the earth. The food, by the force of

the muscular coats of this stomach, and the liquors poured in, is

sufficiently macerated; after which, formed into small balls, it

is thrown up by the oesophagus into the mouth, where it is made

very small by mastication or chewing, and then sent down into the

second stomach, into which the oesophagus or gullet opens, as

well as into the first, ending exactly where the two stomachs

meet. This is what is termed chewing the cud. The second

stomach, which is called the reticulum, honeycomb, bonnet, or

king's hood, has a great number of small shallow cells on its

inward surface, of a pentagonal or five-sided form, exactly like

the cells in a honey-comb; in this the food is farther macerated,

and then pushed onward into the third stomach, called the omasum

or many-plies, because its inward surface is covered with a great

number of thin membraneous partitions. From this the food passes

into the fourth stomach, called the abomasum, or rede. In this

stomach it is digested, and from the digested mass the chyle is

formed, which, being absorbed by the lacteal vessels, is

afterwards thrown into the mass of blood, and becomes the

principle of nutrition to all the solids and fluids of the body.

The intention of rumination, or chewing the cud, seems to be,

that the food may be sufficiently comminuted, that, being more

fully acted on by the stomachs, it may afford the greatest

possible portion of nutritive juices.

The word cud is probably not originally Saxon, though found in

that language in the same signification in which it is still

used. Junius, with great show of probability, derives it from

the Cambro-British chwyd, a vomit, as it is the ball of food

vomited, or thrown up, from the first stomach or paunch through

the oesophagus into the mouth, which is called by this name.

Those who prefer a Saxon derivation may have it in the verb

[Anglo-Saxon] whence our word chew; and so cud might be

considered a contraction of chewed, but this is not so likely as

the preceding.

4Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
5And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
5 Verse 5. The coney] shaphan, not the rabbit, but

rather a creature nearly resembling it, which abounds in Judea,

Palestine, and Arabia, and is called by Dr. Shaw daman Israel,

and by Mr. Bruce ashkoko. As this creature nearly resembles the

rabbit, with which Spain anciently abounded, Bochart supposes

that the Phoenicians might have given it the name of

spaniah, from the multitude of shephanim (or spanim,

as others pronounce it) which were found there. Hence the emblem

of Spain is a woman sitting with a rabbit at her feet. See a

coin of Hadrian in Scheuchzer.

6And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
6 Verse 6. The hare] arnebeth, as Bochart and others

suppose, from arah, to crop, and nib, the

produce of the ground, these animals being remarkable for

destroying the fruits of the earth. That they are notorious for

destroying the tender blade of the young corn, is well known. It

is very likely that different species of these animals are

included under the general terms shaphan, and

arnebeth, for some travellers have observed that there are four

or five sorts of these animals, which are used for food in the

present day in those countries. See Harmer, vol. iii., p. 331,

edit. 1808. Some think the mountain rat, marmot, squirrel, and

hedgehog, may be intended under the word shaphan.

7And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you.
7 Verse 7. And the swine] chazir, one of the most

gluttonous, libidinous, and filthy quadrupeds in the universe;

and, because of these qualities, sacred to the Venus of the

Greeks and Romans, and the Friga of our Saxon ancestors; and

perhaps on these accounts forbidden, as well as on account of its

flesh being strong and difficult to digest, affording a very

gross kind of aliment, apt to produce cutaneous, scorbutic, and

scrofulous disorders, especially in hot climates.

8Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you.

9 ¶ These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.
9 Verse 9. Whatsoever hath fins and scales] Because these, of

all the fish tribe, are the most nourishing; the others which are

without scales, or whose bodies are covered with a thick

glutinous matter, being in general very difficult of digestion.

10And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you:
11They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.
12Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you.

13 ¶ And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
13 Verse 13. And these-among the fowls-the eagle] nesher,

from nashar, to lacerate, cut, or tear to pieces; hence the

eagle, a most rapacious bird of prey, from its tearing the flesh

of the animals it feeds on; and for this purpose birds of prey

have, in general, strong, crooked talons and a hooked beak. The

eagle is a cruel bird, exceedingly ravenous, and almost


The ossifrage] Or bone-breaker, from os, a bone, and

frango, I break, because it not only strips off the flesh, but

breaks the bone in order to extract the marrow. In Hebrew it is

called peres, from paras, to break or divide in two,

and probably signifies that species of the eagle anciently known

by the name of ossifraga, and which we render ossifrage.

Ospray] ozniyah, from azan, to be strong,

vigorous; generally supposed to mean the black eagle, such as

that described by Homer, Iliad. lib. xxi., ver. 252.



"Having the rapidity of the black eagle, that bird of prey, at

once the swiftest and the strongest of the feathered race."

Among the Greeks and Romans the eagle was held sacred, and is

represented as carrying the thunderbolts of Jupiter. This occurs

so frequently, and is so well known, that references are almost

needless. See Scheuchzer.

14And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;
14 Verse 14. The vulture] daah, from the root to fly,

and therefore more probably the kite or glede, from its remarkable

property of gliding or sailing with expanded wings through the

air. The daah is a different bird from the daiyah,

which signifies the vulture. See Bochart, vol. iii., col. 195.

The kite] aiyah, thought by some to be the vulture,

by others the merlin. Parkhurst thinks it has its name from the

root avah, to covet, because of its rapaciousness; some

contend that the kite is meant. That it is a species of the

hawk, most learned men allow. See Bochart, vol. iii., col. 192.

15Every raven after his kind;
15 Verse 15. Every raven] oreb, a general term

comprehending the raven, crow, rook, jackdaw, and magpie.

16And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,
16 Verse 16. The owl] bath haiyaanah, the daughter

of vociferation, the female ostrich, probably so called from the

noise they make. "In the lonesome part of the night," says Dr.

Shaw, "the ostriches frequently make a very doleful and hideous

noise, sometimes resembling the roar of the lion; at other times,

the hoarser voice of the bull or ox." He adds, "I have heard

them groan as if in the deepest agonies."-Travels, 4to edition,

p. 455. The ostrich is a very unclean animal, and eats its own

ordure as soon as it voids it, and of this Dr. Shaw observes,

(see above,) it is remarkably fond! This is a sufficient reason,

were others wanting, why such a fowl should be reputed to be

unclean, and its use as an article of diet prohibited.

The night hawk] tachmas, from chamas, to

force away, act violently and unjustly; supposed by Bochart

and Scheuchzer to signify the male ostrich, from its cruelty

towards its young; (see ;) but others, with more

reason, suppose it to be the bird described by Hasselquist, which

he calls the strix Orientalis, or Oriental owl. "It is of the

size of the common owl, living in the ruins and old deserted

houses of Egypt and Syria; and sometimes in inhabited houses.

The Arabs in Egypt call it Massasa, the Syrians Bana. It is very

ravenous in Syria, and in the evenings, if the windows be left

open, it flies into the house and kills infants, unless they are

carefully watched; wherefore the women are much afraid of it."-

Travels, p. 196.

If this is the fowl intended, this is a sufficient reason why

it should be considered an abomination.

The cuckoo] shachaph, supposed rather to mean the sea

mew; called shachaph, from shachepheth, a wasting

distemper, or atrophy, (mentioned ,)

because its body is the leanest, in proportion to its bones and

feathers, of most other birds, always appearing as if under the

influence of a wasting distemper. A fowl which, from its natural

constitution or manner of life, is incapable of becoming plump or

fleshy, must always be unwholesome; and this is reason sufficient

why such should be prohibited.

And the hawk] nets, from the root natsah, to

shoot forth or spring forward, because of the rapidity and length

of its flight, the hawk being remarkable for both. As this is a

bird of prey, it is forbidden, and all others of its kind.

17And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,
17 Verse 17. The little owl] cos, the bittern,

night-raven or night-owl, according to most interpreters. Some

think the onocrotalus or pelican may be intended; for as the word

cos signifies a cup in Hebrew, and the pelican is

remarkable for a pouch or bag under the lower jaw, it might have

had its Hebrew name from this circumstance; but the kaath in the

following verse is rather supposed to mean this fowl, and the cos

some species of the bubo or owl. See Bochart, vol. iii., col.


The cormorant] shalach, from the root which signifies to

cast down; hence the Septuagint καταρρακτης, the cataract, or

bird which falls precipitately down upon its prey. It probably

signifies the plungeon or diver, a sea fowl, which I have seen at

sea dart down as swift as an arrow into the water, and seize the

fish which it had discovered while even flying, or rather

soaring, at a very great height.

The great owl] yanshuph, according to the

Septuagint and the Vulgate, signifies the ibis, a bird well

known and held sacred in Egypt. Some critics, with our translation,

think it means a species of owl or night bird, because the word

may be derived from nesheph, which signifies the twilight,

the time in which owls chiefly fly about. See Bochart, vol.

iii., col. 281.

18And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,
18 Verse 18. The swan] tinshemeth. The Septuagint

translate the word by πορφυριωνα, the porphyrion, purple or

scarlet bird. Could we depend on this translation, we might

suppose the flamingo or some such bird to be intended. Some

suppose the goose to be meant, but this is by no means likely, as

it cannot be classed either among ravenous or unclean fowls.

Bochart thinks the owl is meant.

The pelican] kaath. As kaah signifies to

vomit up, the name is supposed to be descriptive of the pelican,

who receives its food into the pouch under its lower jaw, and, by

pressing it on its breast with its bill, throws it up for the

nourishment of its young. Hence the fable which represents the

pelican wounding her breast with her bill, that she might feed

her young with her own blood; a fiction which has no foundation

but in the above circumstance. Bochart thinks the bittern is

meant, vol. iii., col. 292.

The gier eagle] racham. As the root of this word

signifies tenderness and affection, it is supposed to refer to

some bird remarkable for its attachment to its young; hence some

have thought that the pelican is to be understood. Bochart

endeavours to prove that it means the vulture, probably that

species called the golden vulture.-Bochart, vol. iii., col. 303.

19And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.
19 Verse 19. The stork] chasidah, from chasad,

which signifies to be abundant in kindness, or exuberant in acts

of beneficence; hence applied to the stork, because of its

affection to its young, and its kindness in tending and feeding

its parents when old; facts attested by the best informed and

most judicious of the Greek and Latin natural historians. See

Bochart, Scheuchzer, and Parkhurst, under the word

chasad. It is remarkable for destroying and eating serpents, and

on this account might be reckoned by Moses among unclean birds.

The heron] anaphah. This word has been variously

understood: some have rendered it the kite, others the woodcock,

others the curlew, some the peacock, others the parrot, and

others the crane. The root anaph, signifies to breathe

short through the nostrils, to snuff, as in anger; hence to be

angry: and it is supposed that the word is sufficiently

descriptive of the heron, from its very irritable disposition.

It will attack even a man in defence of its nest; and I have

known a case where a man was in danger of losing his life by the

stroke of a heron's bill, near the eye, who had climbed up into a

high tree to take its nest. Bochart supposes a species of the

eagle to be meant, vol. iii., col. 335.

The lapwing] duchiphath, the upupa, hoopoe, or

hoop, a crested bird, with beautiful plumage, but very unclean.

See Bochart, and Scheuchzer. Concerning the genuine meaning of

the original, there is little agreement among interpreters.

The bat] atalleph, so called, according to

Parkhurst, from at, to fly, and alaph, darkness

or obscurity, because it flies about in the dusk of the evening,

and in the night: so the Septuagint νυκτερις, from νυξ, the

night; and the Vulgate vespertilio, from vesper, the evening.

This being a sort of monster partaking of the nature of both a

bird and beast, it might well be classed among unclean animals,

or animals the use of which in food should be avoided.

20All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you.
20 Verse 20. All fowls that creep] Such as the bat, already

mentioned, which has claws attached to its leathern wings, and

which serve in place of feet to crawl by, the feet and legs not

being distinct; but this may also include all the different kinds

of insects, with the exceptions in the following verse.

Going upon all four] May signify no more than walking

regularly or progressively, foot after foot as quadrupeds do; for

it cannot be applied to insects literally, as they have in

general six feet, many of them more, some reputed to have a

hundred, hence called centipedes; and some a thousand, hence

called millipedes; words which often signify no more than that

such insects have a great number of feet.

21Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;
21 Verse 21. Which have legs above their feet] This appears to

refer to the different kinds of locusts and grasshoppers, which

have very remarkable hind legs, long, and with high joints,

projecting above their backs, by which they are enabled to spring

up from the ground, and leap high and far.

22Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind.
22 Verse 22. The locust] arbeh, either from

arab, to lie in wait or in ambush, because often immense flights

of them suddenly alight upon the fields, vineyards, &c., and

destroy all the produce of the earth; or from rabah, he

multiplied, because of their prodigious swarms. See a particular

account of these insects in the notes, See "Ex 10:4".

The bald locust] solam, compounded, says Mr.

Parkhurst, from sala, to cut, break, and am,

contiguity; a kind of locust, probably so called from its rugged,

craggy form. See the first of Scheuchzer's plates, vol. iii.,

p. 100.

The beetle] chargol. "The Hebrew name seems a

derivative from charag, to shake, and regel, the

foot; and so to denote the nimbleness of its motions. Thus in

English we call an animal of the locust kind a grasshopper; the

French name of which is souterelle, from the verb sauter, to

leap"-Parkhurst. This word occurs only in this place. The beetle

never can be intended here, as that insect never was eaten by

man, perhaps, in any country of the universe.

The grasshopper] chagab. Bochart supposes that this

species of locust has its name from the Arabic verb [Arabic]

hajaba to veil; because when they fly, as they often do, in great

swarms, they eclipse even the light of the sun.

See the notes on "Ex 10:4",

and the description of ten kinds of locusts in Bochart, vol.

iii., col. 441. And see the figures in Scheuchzer, in whose

plates 20 different species are represented, vol. iii., p. 100.

And see Dr. Shaw on the animals mentioned in this chapter.

Travels, p. 419, &c., 4to. edition; and when all these are

consulted, the reader will see how little dependence can be

placed on the most learned conjectures relative to these and the

other animals mentioned in Scripture. One thing however is fully

evident, viz., that the locust was eaten, not only in those

ancient times, in the time of John Baptist, , but also in

the present day. Dr. Shaw ate of them in Barbary "fried and

salted," and tells us that "they tasted very like crayfish."

They have been eaten in Africa, Greece, Syria, Persia, and

throughout Asia; and whole tribes seem to have lived on them, and

were hence called acridophagoi, or locust-eaters by the Greeks.

See Strabo lib. xvi., and Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xvii., c. 30.

23But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you.
24And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.
25And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
26The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean.
27And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.
27 Verse 27. Whatsoever goeth upon his paws] cappaiv, his

palms or hands, probably referring to those animals whose feet

resemble the hands and feet of the human being, such as apes,

monkeys, and all creatures of that genus; together with bears,

frogs, &c.

28And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.

29 ¶ These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,
29 Verse 29. The weasel] choled, from chalad, Syr., to

creep in. Bochart conjectures, with great propriety, that the

mole, not the weasel, is intended by the Hebrew word: its

property of digging into the earth, and creeping or burrowing

under the surface, is well known.

The mouse] achbar. Probably the large field rat, or

what is called by the Germans the hamster, though every species

of the mus genus may be here prohibited.

The tortoise] tsab. Most critics allow that the

tortoise is not intended here, but rather the crocodile, the

frog, or the toad. The frog is most probably the animal meant,

and all other creatures of its kind.

30And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.
30 Verse 30. The ferret] anakah, from anak, to

groan, to cry out: a species of lizard, which derives its name

from its piercing, doleful cry. See Bochart, vol. ii., col.


The chameleon] coach. Bochart contends that this is the

[Arabic] waril or guaril, another species of lizard, which

derives its name from its remarkable strength and vigour in

destroying serpents, the Hebrew cach signifying to be strong,

firm, vigorous: it is probably the same with the mongoose, a

creature still well known in India, where it is often

domesticated in order to keep the houses free from snakes, rats,

mice, &c.

The lizard] letaah. Bochart contends that this also is

a species of lizard, called by the Arabs [Arabic] wahara, which

creeps close to the ground, and is poisonous.

The snail] chomet, another species of lizard,

according to Bochart, called [Arabic] huluka by the Arabians,

which lives chiefly in the sand.-Vol. ii., col. 1075.

The mole.] tinshameth, from nasham, to

breathe. Bochart seems to have proved that this is the chameleon,

which has its Hebrew name from its wide gaping mouth, very large

lungs, and its deriving its nourishment from small animals which

float in the air, so that it has been conjectured by some to feed

on the air itself.-Vol. iii., col. 1073. A bird of the same name

is mentioned , which Bochart supposes to be the

night-owl.-Vol. iii., col. 286.

31These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.
32And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.
32 Verse 32. Any vessel of wood] Such as the wooden bowls still

in use among the Arabs. Or raiment, or skin-any trunks or

baskets covered with skins, another part of the furniture of an

Arab tent; the goat-skins, in which they churn their milk, may be

also intended. Or sack-any hair-cloth used for the purpose of

transporting goods from place to place.

33And every earthen vessel, whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.
33 Verse 33. And every earthen vessel] Such pitchers as are

commonly used for drinking out of, and for holding liquids. M.

De la Roque observes that hair-sacks, trunks, and baskets,

covered with skin, are used among the travelling Arabs to carry

their household utensils in, which are kettles or pots, great

wooden bowls, hand-mills, and pitchers. It is very likely that

these are nearly the same with those used by the Israelites in

their journeyings in the wilderness, for the customs of these

people do not change.

34Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.
35And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you.
35 Verse 35. Ranges for pots] To understand this, we must

observe that the Arabs dig a hole in their tent, about a foot and

a half deep; three-fourths of this, says Rauwolff, they lay about

with stones, and the fourth part is left open for the purpose of

throwing in their fuel. This little temporary building is

probably what is here designed by ranges for pots; and this was

to be broken down when any unclean thing had fallen upon it. See

Harmer, vol. 1., p. 464.

36Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.a
36 Verse 36. A fountain or pit, &c.] This must either refer to

running water, the stream of which soon carries off all

impurities, or to large reservoirs where the water soon purifies

itself; the water in either which touched the unclean thing,

being considered as impure, the rest of the water being clean.

37And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean.
37 Verse 37. Any sowing seed] If any part of an impure carcass

fall accidentally on seed about to be sown, it shall not on that

account be deemed unclean; but if the water put to the seed to

prepare it for being sown, shall be touched by such impure

carcass, the seed shall be considered as unclean, .

Probably this may be the meaning of these passages.

38But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you.
39And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.
40And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
41And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten.
42Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.b
42 Verse 42. Whatsoever goeth upon the belly] In the word

gahOn, the vau holem, in most Hebrew Bibles, is much larger than

the other letters; and a Masoretic note is added in the margin,

which states that this is the middle letter of the law; and

consequently this verse is the middle verse of the Pentateuch.

Whatsoever hath more feet] Than four; that is, all

many-footed reptiles, as well as those which go upon the belly

having no feet, such as serpents; besides the four-footed smaller

animals mentioned above.

43Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.c
44因为我是耶和华你们的 神,所以你们要使自己成为圣洁。你们要分别为圣,因为我是圣洁的。你们不可因在地上爬行的任何动物玷污自己,
44For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
44 Verse 44. Ye shall-sanctify yourselves] Ye shall keep

yourselves separate from all the people of the earth, that ye may

be holy; for I am holy. And this was the grand design of God in

all these prohibitions and commands; for these external

sanctifications were only the emblems of the internal purity

which the holiness of God requires here, and without which none

can dwell with him in glory hereafter. See at the conclusion of

this chapter.

THE contents of this chapter must furnish many profitable

reflections to a pious mind.

1. From the great difficulty of ascertaining what animals are

meant in this part of the law, we may at once see that the law

itself must be considered as abrogated; for there is not a Jew in

the universe who knows what the animals are, a very few excepted,

which are intended by these Hebrew words; and therefore he may be

repeatedly breaking this law by touching and being touched either

by the animals themselves or their produce, such as hair, wool,

fur, skin, intestines, differently manufactured, &c., &c. It

therefore appears that this people have as little law as they

have gospel.

2. While God keeps the eternal interests of man steadily in

view, he does not forget his earthly comfort; he is at once

solicitous both for the health of his body and his soul. He has

not forbidden certain aliments because he is a Sovereign, but

because he knew they would be injurious to the health and morals

of his people. The close connection that subsists between the

body and the soul we cannot fully comprehend; and as little can

we comprehend the influence they have on each other. Many moral

alterations take place in the mind in consequence of the

influence of the bodily organs; and these latter are greatly

influenced by the kind of ailment which the body receives. God

knows what is in man, and he knows what is in all creatures; he

has therefore graciously forbidden what would injure both body

and mind, and commanded what is best calculated to be useful to

both. Solid-footed animals, such as the horse, and many-toed

animals, such as the cat, &c., are here prohibited. Beasts which

have bifid or cloven hoofs, such as the ox and sheep, are

considered as proper for food, and therefore commanded. The

former are unclean, i. e., unwholesome, affording a gross

nutriment, often the parent of scorbutic and scrofulous

disorders; the latter clean, i. e., affording a copious and

wholesome nutriment, and not laying the foundation of any

disease. Ruminating animals, i. e., those which chew the cud,

concoct their food better than the others which swallow it with

little mastication, and therefore their flesh contains more of

the nutritious juices, and is more easy of digestion, and

consequently of assimilation to the solids and fluids of the

human body; on this account they are termed clean, i. e.,

peculiarly wholesome, and fit for food. The animals which do not

ruminate do not concoct their food so well, and hence they abound

with gross animal juices, which yield a comparatively unwholesome

nutriment to the human system. Even the animals which have bifid

hoofs but do not chew the cud, such as the swine, and those which

chew the cud but are not bifid, such as the hare and rabbit, are

by Him who knows all things forbidden, because he knew them to be

comparatively innutritive. In all this God shows himself as the

tender Father of a numerous family, pointing out to his

inexperienced, froward, and ignorant children, those kinds of

aliments which he knows will be injurious to their health and

domestic happiness, and prohibiting them on pain of his highest

displeasure. On the same ground he forbade all fish that have

not both fins and scales, such as the conger, eel, &c., which

abound in gross juices and fat which very few stomachs are able

to digest. Who, for instance, that lives solely on swine's

flesh, has pure blood and healthy juices? And is it not evident,

in many cases, that the man partakes considerably of the nature

of the brute on which he exclusively feeds? I could pursue this

inquiry much farther, and bring many proofs founded on

indisputable facts, but I forbear; for he who might stand most in

need of caution, would be the first to take offence.

3. As the body exists only for the sake of the soul, and God

feeds and nourishes it through the day of probation, that the

soul may here be prepared for the kingdom of heaven; therefore he

shows in the conclusion of these ordinances, that the grand scope

and design of all was that they might be a holy people, and that

they might resemble him who is a holy God.-GOD IS HOLY; and this

is the eternal reason why all his people should be holy-should be

purified from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting

holiness in the fear of God. No faith in any particular creed,

no religious observance, no acts of benevolence and charity, no

mortification, attrition, or contrition, can be a substitute for

this. We must be made partakers of the Divine nature. We must

be saved from our sins-from the corruption that is in the world,

and be made holy within and righteous without, or never see God.

For this very purpose Jesus Christ lived, died, and revived, that

he might purify us unto himself; that through faith in his blood

our sins might be blotted out, and our souls restored to the

image of God.-Reader, art thou hungering and thirsting after

righteousness? Then blessed art thou, for thou shalt be filled.

45因为我是耶和华,曾把你们从埃及地领上来,为要作你们的 神;你们要分别为圣,因为我是圣洁的。”
45For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.
46This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth:
47To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.