Select Commentary| Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible| 利| Chapter 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 |
Total 30 verses in Chapter 18: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 |


a near…: Heb. remainder of his flesh
b a wife…: or, one wife to another
c Molech: Gr. Moloch


1 耶和华对摩西说:
1And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

The people are commanded to avoid the doings of the Egyptians

and Canaanites, 1-3.

They are to do God's judgments, and to keep his ordinances,

that they may live, 4, 5.

Marriages with those who are near of kin are prohibited, 6.

None to marry with his mother or step-mother, 7, 8;

with his sister or step-sister, 9;

with his grand-daughter, 10;

nor with the daughter of his step-mother, 11;

nor with his aunt, by father or mother, 12, 13;

nor with his uncle's wife, 14;

nor with his daughter-in-law, 15;

nor sister-in-law, 16;

nor with a woman and her daughter, son's daughter, or

daughter's daughter, 17;

nor with two sisters at the same time, 18.

Several abominations prohibited, 19-23,

of which the Canaanites, &c., were guilty, and for which they

were cast out of the land, 24, 25.

The people are exhorted to avoid these abominations, lest they

be treated as the ancient inhabitants of the land were treated,

and so cast out, 26-28.

Threatenings against the disobedient, 29,

and promises to the obedient, 30.


2“你要告诉以色列人,对他们说:我是耶和华你们的 神。
2Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, I am the LORD your God.
3After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk in their ordinances.
3 Verse 3. The doings of the land of Egypt-the land of Canaan]

The worshipping of demons, beasts, &c., as mentioned in the

preceding chapters, , and the abominations mentioned

in this chapter from .

4你们要遵行我的典章,谨守我的律例,要遵照奉行;我是耶和华你们的 神。
4Ye shall do my judgments, and keep mine ordinances, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God.
5Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the LORD.



6 ¶ None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness: I am the LORD.a
6 Verse 6. Any that is near of kin] col shear

besaro, any remnant of his flesh, i. e., to any particularly

allied to his own family, the prohibited degrees in which are

specified from inclusive.

Notwithstanding the prohibitions here, it must be evident that

in the infancy of the world, persons very near of kin must have

been joined in matrimonial alliances; and that even brothers

must have matched with their own sisters. This must have been

the case in the family of Adam. In these first instances

necessity required this; when this necessity no longer existed,

the thing became inexpedient and improper for two reasons: 1.

That the duties owing by nature to relatives might not be

confounded with those of a social or political kind; for could a

man be a brother and a husband, a son and a husband, at the same

time, and fulfil the duties of both? Impossible. 2. That by

intermarrying with other families, the bonds of social compact

might be strengthened and extended, so that the love of our

neighbour, &c., might at once be felt to be not only a maxim of

sound policy, but also a very practicable and easy duty; and

thus feuds, divisions, and wars be prevented.

7The nakedness of thy father, or the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.
8The nakedness of thy father's wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father's nakedness.
9The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or daughter of thy mother, whether she be born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover.
10The nakedness of thy son's daughter, or of thy daughter's daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover: for theirs is thine own nakedness.
11The nakedness of thy father's wife's daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.
12Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's sister: she is thy father's near kinswoman.
13Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother's sister: for she is thy mother's near kinswoman.
14Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's brother, thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt.
15Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter in law: she is thy son's wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness.
16Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife: it is thy brother's nakedness.
16 Verse 16. Thy brother's wife] This was an illegal marriage,

unless the brother died childless. In that case it was not only

lawful for her to marry her brother-in-law, but he was obliged

by the law, , to take her to wife.

17Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter, neither shalt thou take her son's daughter, or her daughter's daughter, to uncover her nakedness; for they are her near kinswomen: it is wickedness.
18Neither shalt thou take a wife to her sister, to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her life time.b
18 Verse 18. A wife to her sister] Thou shalt not marry two

sisters at the same time, as Jacob did Rachel and Leah; but

there is nothing in this law that rendered it illegal to marry a

sister-in-law when her sister was dead; therefore the text says,

Thou shalt not take her in her life time, to vex her, alluding

probably to the case of the jealousies and vexations which

subsisted between Leah and Rachel, and by which the family peace

was so often disturbed. Some think that the text may be so

understood as also to forbid polygamy.

19Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness.
19 Verse 19. As long as she is put apart]


20Moreover thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's wife, to defile thyself with her.
20 Verse 20. Thy neighbour's wife]


21你不可把你的儿子(“儿子”原文作“种子”或“精子”)献给摩洛,也不可亵渎你 神的名;我是耶和华。
21And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.c
21 Verse 21. Pass through the fire to Molech] The name of this

idol is mentioned for the first time in this place. As the word

molech or melech signifies king or governor, it is

very likely that this idol represented the sun; and more

particularly as the fire appears to have been so much employed in

his worship. There are several opinions concerning the meaning of

passing through the fire to Molech. 1. Some think that the

semen humanum was offered on the fire to this idol. 2. Others

think that the children were actually made a burnt-offering to

him. 3. But others suppose the children were not burnt, but only

passed through the fire, or between two fires, by way of

consecration to him. That some were actually burnt alive to

this idol several scriptures, according to the opinion of

commentators, seem strongly to intimate; see among others,

, and . That others were only

consecrated to his service by passing between two fires the

rabbins strongly assert; and if Ahaz had but one son, Hezekiah,

(though it is probable he had others, see ,) he is said

to have passed through the fire to Molech, , yet he

succeeded his father in the kingdom, , therefore this

could only be a consecration, his idolatrous father intending

thereby to initiate him early into the service of this demon.


22Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.
22 Verse 22. With mankind] This abominable crime, frequent

among the Greeks and Romans as well as the Canaanites, may be

punished with death in this country.

23Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith: neither shall any woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto: it is confusion.
23 Verse 23. With any beast] This abomination is also

punishable with death by the laws of this country.

Any woman stand before a beast] That this was often done in

Egypt there can be no doubt; and we have already seen, from the

testimony of Herodotus, that a fact of this kind actually took

place while he was in Egypt.

, and "Le 20:16".

24Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things: for in all these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you:
25And the land is defiled: therefore I do visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants.
25 Verse 25. The land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants.]

This is a very nervous prosopopoeia or personification; a

figure by which any part of inanimate nature may be represented

as possessing the passions and reason of man. Here the land is

represented as an intelligent being, with a deep and refined

sense of moral good and evil: information concerning the

abominations of the people is brought to this personified land,

with which it is so deeply affected that a nausea is produced,

and it vomits out its abominable and accursed inhabitants. It

was natural for the inspired penman to make use of such a

figure, as the description he was obliged to give of so many and

enormous abominations must have affected him nearly in the same

way in which he represents the land to be affected.

26Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments, and shall not commit any of these abominations; neither any of your own nation, nor any stranger that sojourneth among you:
27(For all these abominations have the men of the land done, which were before you, and the land is defiled;)
28That the land spue not you out also, when ye defile it, as it spued out the nations that were before you.
29For whosoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the souls that commit them shall be cut off from among their people.
30所以你们要谨守我的吩咐,免得你们行那些可憎的风俗,就是你们以前的人所行的,玷污了自己。我是耶和华你们的 神。”
30Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, that ye commit not any one of these abominable customs, which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God.
30 Verse 30. Shall ye keep mine ordinance] The only way to be

preserved from all false worship is seriously to consider and

devoutly to observe the ordinances of the true religion. He who

in the things of God goes no farther than he can say, Thus it is

written, and thus it behoves me to do, is never likely to

receive a false creed, nor perform a superstitious act of


1. How true is that word, The law of the Lord is PERFECT! In a

small compass, and in a most minute detail, it comprises every

thing that is calculated to instruct, direct, convince, correct,

and fortify the mind of man. Whatever has a tendency to corrupt

or injure man, that it forbids; whatever is calculated to

comfort him, promote and secure his best interests, that it

commands. It takes him in all possible states, views him in all

connections, and provides for his present and eternal happiness.

2. As the human soul is polluted and tends to pollution, the

great doctrine of the law is holiness to the Lord: this it keeps

invariably in view in all its commands, precepts, ordinances,

rites, and ceremonies. And how forcibly in all these does it

say, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and

with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy

strength; and thy neighbour as thyself! This is the prominent

doctrine of the preceding chapter; and this shall be fulfilled

in all them who believe, for Christ is the end of the law for

righteousness to them that believe. Reader, magnify God for his

law, for by it is the knowledge of sin; and magnify him for his

Gospel, for by this is the cure of sin. Let the law be thy

schoolmaster to bring thee to Christ, that thou mayest be

justified by faith; and that the righteousness of the law may be

fulfilled in thee, and that thou mayest walk, not after the

flesh, but after the Spirit.