Select Commentary| Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible| 利| Chapter 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 |
Total 19 verses in Chapter 5: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 |


a he be…: Heb. his hand cannot reach to the sufficiency of a lamb
b manner: or, ordinance


1 “如果有人犯罪:他听见发誓的声音(“发誓的声音”或译:“传召作证的声音”,或“发咒语的声音”);他本是证人,却不肯把看见或知道的说出来,他就要担当自己的罪责。
1And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or known of it; if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity.

Concerning witnesses who, being adjured, refuse to tell the

truth, 1.

Of those who contract defilement by touching unclean things

or persons, 2, 3.

Of those who bind themselves by vows or oaths, and do not

fulfil them, 4, 5.

The trespass-offering prescribed in such cases, a lamb or a

kid, 6;

a turtle-dove or two young pigeons, 7-10;

or an ephah of fine flour with oil and frankincense, 11-13.

Other laws relative to trespasses, through ignorance in holy

things, 14-16.

Of trespasses in things unknown, 17-19.


Verse 1. If a soul sin] It is generally supposed that the

case referred to here is that of a person who, being demanded by

the civil magistrate to answer upon oath, refuses to tell what he

knows concerning the subject; such a one shall bear his

iniquity-shall be considered as guilty in the sight of God, of

the transgression which he has endeavoured to conceal, and must

expect to be punished by him for hiding the iniquity to which he

was privy, or suppressing the truth which, being discovered,

would have led to the exculpation of the innocent, and the

punishment of the guilty.

2Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, whether it be a carcase of an unclean beast, or a carcase of unclean cattle, or the carcase of unclean creeping things, and if it be hidden from him; he also shall be unclean, and guilty.
2 Verse 2. Any unclean thing] Either the dead body of a clean

animal, or the living or dead carcass of any unclean creature.

All such persons were to wash their clothes and themselves in

clean water, and were considered as unclean till the evening,

. But if this had been neglected, they were

obliged to bring a trespass-offering. What this meant, see in

Clarke's notes on "Le 7:38".

3Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall be defiled withal, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty.
4Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty in one of these.
4 Verse 4. To do evil, or to do good] It is very likely that

rash promises are here intended; for if a man vow to do an act

that is evil, though it would be criminal to keep such an oath or

vow, yet he is guilty because he made it, and therefore must

offer the trespass-offering. If he neglect to do the good he has

vowed, he is guilty, and must in both cases confess his iniquity,

and bring his trespass-offering.

5And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing:
5 Verse 5. He shall confess that he hath sinned] Even

restitution was not sufficient without this confession, because a

man might make restitution without being much humbled; but the

confession of sin has a direct tendency to humble the soul, and

hence it is so frequently required in the Holy Scriptures, as

without humiliation there can be no salvation.

6And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin.
7And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass, which he hath committed, two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD; one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering.a
7 Verse 7. If he be not able to bring a lamb] See the

conclusion of Clarke's note on "Le 1:16".

8And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin offering first, and wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide it asunder:
8 Verse 8. But shall not divide it]


9And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar: it is a sin offering.
10And he shall offer the second for a burnt offering, according to the manner: and the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be forgiven him.b
10 Verse 10. He shall offer the second for a burnt-offering]

The pigeon for the burnt-offering was wholly consumed, it was

the Lord's property; that for the sin-offering was the priest's

property, and was to be eaten by him after its blood had been

partly sprinkled on the side of the altar, and the rest poured

out at the bottom of the altar. See also .


11 ¶ But if he be not able to bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon: for it is a sin offering.
11 Verse 11. Tenth part of an ephah] About three quarts. The

ephah contained a little more than seven gallons and a half.

12Then shall he bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it, even a memorial thereof, and burn it on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: it is a sin offering.
13And the priest shall make an atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him: and the remnant shall be the priest's, as a meat offering.



14 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
15If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the LORD; then he shall bring for his trespass unto the LORD a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering:
15 Verse 15. In the holy things of the Lord] This law seems to

relate particularly to sacrilege, and defrauds in spiritual

matters; such as the neglect to consecrate or redeem the

firstborn, the withholding of the first-fruits, tithes, and such

like; and, according to the rabbins, making any secular gain of

Divine things, keeping back any part of the price of things

dedicated to God, or withholding what man had vowed to pay. See

a long list of these things in Ainsworth.

With thy estimation] The wrong done or the defraud committed

should be estimated at the number of shekels it was worth, or for

which it would sell. These the defrauder was to pay down, to

which he was to add a fifth part more, and bring a ram without

blemish for a sin-offering besides. There is an obscurity in the

text, but this seems to be its meaning.

16And he shall make amends for the harm that he hath done in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him.
16 Verse 16. Shall make amends] Make restitution for the wrong

he had done according to what is laid down in the preceding



17 ¶ And if a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the LORD; though he wist it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.
18And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred and wist it not, and it shall be forgiven him.
19It is a trespass offering: he hath certainly trespassed against the LORD.
19 Verse 19. He hath certainly trespassed] And because he hath

sinned, therefore he must bring a sacrifice. On no other ground

shall he be accepted by the Lord. Reader, how dost thou stand in

the sight of thy Maker?

ON the subject of this chapter it may be proper to make the

following reflections.

When the infinite purity and strict justice of God are

considered, the exceeding breadth of his commandment, our

slowness of heart to believe, and our comparatively cold

performance of sacred duties, no wonder that there is sinfulness

found in our holy things; and at what a low ebb must the

Christian life be found when this is the case! This is a sore

and degrading evil in the Church of God; but there is one even

worse than this, that is, the strenuous endeavour of many

religious people to reconcile their minds to this state of

inexcusable imperfection, and defend it zealously, on the

supposition that it is at once both unavoidable and

useful-unavoidable, for they think they cannot live without it;

and useful, because they suppose it tends to humble them! The

more inward sin a man has, the more pride he will feel; the less,

the more humility. A sense of God's infinite kindness to us, and

our constant dependence on him, will ever keep the soul in the

dust. Sin can never be necessary to the maintenance or extension

of the Christian life, it is the thing which Jesus Christ came

into the world to destroy; and his name is called JESUS or

Saviour because he saves his people from their sins. But how

little of the spirit and influence of his Gospel is known in the

world! He saves, unto the uttermost, them who come unto the

Father through him. But alas! how few are thus saved! for they

will not come unto him that they might have life. Should any

Christian refuse to offer up the following prayer to God?

"Almighty God, unto whom all hearts be open, and from whom no

secrets are hid, cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the

inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee,

and worthily magnify thy holy name, through Christ our Lord.

Amen."-The Liturgy.