And the LORD
spake unto Moses, saying,
Moses is commanded to consecrate Aaron and his sons, 1-3.
Moses convenes the congregation; washes, clothes, and anoints
He also clothes Aaron's sons, 13.
Offers a bullock for them as a sin-offering, 14-17.
And a ram for a burnt-offering, 18-21.
And another ram for a consecration-offering, 22-24.
The fat, with cakes of unleavened bread, and the right shoulder
of the ram, he offers as a wave-offering, and afterwards burns,
The breast, which was the part of Moses, he also waves, 29.
And sprinkles oil and blood upon Aaron and his sons, 30.
The flesh of the consecration ram is to be boiled and eaten at
the door of the tabernacle, 31, 32.
Moses commands Aaron and his sons to abide seven days at the
door of the tabernacle of the congregation, which they do
NOTES ON CHAP VIII
你将亚伦 和他儿子 一同带来 ，并将圣衣 、膏 油 ，与赎罪祭 的一只公牛 、两 只公绵羊 、一筐 无酵饼 都带来，
Take Aaron and his sons with him, and the garments, and the anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin offering, and two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread;
Verse 2. Take Aaron and his sons
] The whole subject of this
chapter has been anticipated in the notes, See "Ex 28:1"
, &c., and See "Ex 29:1"
, &c., in which all the sacrifices, rites, and
ceremonies have been explained in considerable detail; and to those
notes the reader is referred. It is only necessary to observe that
Aaron and his sons were not anointed until now
, the thing
was commanded; now
, first performed
And gather thou all the congregation together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
所吩咐 的行了 ；于是会众 聚集 在会 幕 门 口。
And Moses did as the LORD
commanded him; and the assembly was gathered together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
摩西 告诉会众 说 ：这就是耶和华
所吩咐 当行 的事 。
And Moses said unto the congregation, This is
the thing which the LORD
commanded to be done.
摩西 带了 亚伦 和他儿子 来，用水 洗了 他们。
And Moses brought Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water.
给亚伦穿上 内袍 ，束上 腰带 ，穿上 外袍 ，又加上 以弗得 ，用其上巧工织的带子 把以弗得 繫在 他身上，
And he put upon him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound it
unto him therewith.
又给他戴上 胸牌 ，把乌陵 和土明 放在 胸牌 内，
And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.
Verse 8. He put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.
The Urim and Thummim are here supposed to be something different
from the breastplate itself. See Clarke on Ex 28:15
; "Ex 28:16"
; "Ex 28:30"
把冠冕 戴在 他头 上，在冠冕 的前面 钉上 金 牌 ，就是圣 冠 ，都是照耶和华
所吩咐 摩西 的。
And he put the mitre upon his head; also upon the mitre, even
upon his forefront, did he put the golden plate, the holy crown; as the LORD
摩西 用 膏 油 抹 帐幕 和其中所有的，使它成圣 ；
And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the tabernacle and all that was
therein, and sanctified them.
又用膏油在坛 上弹了 七 次 ，又抹了 坛 和坛的一切器皿 ，并洗濯盆 和盆座 ，使它成圣 ；
And he sprinkled thereof upon the altar seven times, and anointed the altar and all his vessels, both the laver and his foot, to sanctify them.
又把膏 油 倒在 亚伦 的头 上膏 他，使他成圣 。
And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron's head, and anointed him, to sanctify him.
摩西 带了 亚伦 的儿子 来，给他们穿上 内袍 ，束上 腰带 ，包上 裹头巾 ，都是照耶和华
所吩咐 摩西 的。
And Moses brought Aaron's sons, and put coats upon them, and girded them with girdles, and put bonnets upon them; as the LORD
他牵了 赎罪祭 的公牛 来，亚伦 和他儿子 按 手 在赎罪祭 公牛 的头 上，
And he brought the bullock for the sin offering: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the bullock for the sin offering.
Verse 14. The bullock for the sin-offering
] This was offered
each day during the seven days of consecration. See Ex 29:36
就宰了 公牛。摩西 用 指头 蘸血 ，抹在 坛 上四角 的周围 ，使坛 洁净 ，把血 倒在 坛 的脚 那里，使坛成圣 ，坛就洁净了 ；
And he slew it
; and Moses took the blood, and put it
upon the horns of the altar round about with his finger, and purified the altar, and poured the blood at the bottom of the altar, and sanctified it, to make reconciliation upon it.
又取 脏 上所有的脂油 和肝 上的网子 ，并两 个腰子 与腰子上的脂油 ，都烧 在坛 上；
And he took all the fat that was
upon the inwards, and the caul above
the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and Moses burned it
upon the altar.
唯有公牛 ，连皮 带肉 并粪 ，用火 烧 在营 外 ，都是照耶和华
所吩咐 摩西 的。
But the bullock, and his hide, his flesh, and his dung, he burnt with fire without the camp; as the LORD
他奉上 燔祭 的公绵羊 ；亚伦 和他儿子 按 手 在羊 的头 上，
¶ And he brought the ram for the burnt offering: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram.
就宰了 公羊。摩西 把血 洒在 坛 的周围 ，
And he killed it
; and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about.
把羊 切成 块子 ，把头 和肉块 并脂油 都烧了 。
And he cut the ram into pieces; and Moses burnt the head, and the pieces, and the fat.
用水 洗了 脏腑 和腿 ，就把全羊 烧 在坛 上为馨 香 的燔祭 ，是献给耶和华
所吩咐 摩西 的。
And he washed the inwards and the legs in water; and Moses burnt the whole ram upon the altar: it was
a burnt sacrifice for a sweet savour, and
an offering made by fire unto the LORD
; as the LORD
他又奉上 第二 只公绵羊 ，就是承接圣职之礼 的羊 ；亚伦 和他儿子 按 手 在羊 的头 上，
¶ And he brought the other ram, the ram of consecration: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram.
就宰了 羊。摩西 把 些血 抹在 亚伦 的右 耳 垂 上和右 手 的大拇指 上，并右 脚 的大拇指 上，
And he slew it
; and Moses took of the blood of it, and put it
upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot.
Verse 23. Put it upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, &c.
this significant ceremony explained in the note on Ex 29:20
. See Clarke on Ex 29:20
Calmet remarks that the consecration of the high priest among the
Romans bore a considerable resemblance to the consecration of the
Jewish high priest. "The Roman priest, clothed with a garment of
silk, his head covered with a crown of gold adorned with sacred
ribbons, was conducted into a subterranean place, over which
there was a floor of planks pierced through with many holes. On
this floor they sacrificed a bullock, whose blood was freely
poured out on the planks or floor, which running through the
holes fell upon the priest, who stood under to receive this
sacred aspersion, and who, in order to be completely covered with
the blood, took care to present the whole of his body, his
clothes, face, eyes, nose, lips, and even his tongue, to receive
the drops of blood falling through the pierced floor above. Being
completely covered with this sanguineous shower, he ascended from
his subterranean place, and was acknowledged and adored by the
people as Pontifex Maximus
, or supreme high priest." These
rites, which bear a striking allusion to those used in the
consecration of Aaron, and from which they were probably
borrowed, and disguised by the introduction of their own
superstitions, are particularly described by Aurelius Prudentius
in his poem entitled Romani Martyris Supplicium
, from which I
shall select those verses, the subject of which is given above,
as the passage is curious, and the work not common.
"Summus sacerdos nempe sub terram scrobe
Acta in profundum consecrandus mergitur,
Mire infulatus, festa vittis tempora
Nectens, corona tum repexus aurea,
Cinctu Gabino sericam fultus togam.
Tabulis superne strata texunt pulpita,
Rimosa rari pegmatis compagibus,
Scindunt subinde vel terebrant aream,
Crebroque lignum perforant acumine,
Pateat minutis ut frequens hiatibus.-
Hic ut statuta est immolanda bellua,
Pectus sacrata dividunt venabulo,
Eructat amplum volnus undam sanguinis-&c.
Tum per frequentes mille rimarum vias
Illapsus imber, tabidum rorem pluit,
Defossus intus quem sacerdos excipit,
Guttas ad omnes turpe subjectans caput,
Et veste et omni putrefactus corpore:
Quin os supinat, obvias offert genas
Supponit aures, labra, nares objicit,
Oculos et ipsos perluit liquoribus,
Nec jam palato parcit, et linguam rigat,
Donec cruorem totus atrum combibat.-
Procedit inde pontifex vlsu horridus-&c.
Omnes salutant atque adorant eminus,
Vilis quod illum sanguls, et bos mortuus
Foedis latentem sub cavernis laverint."
Of these lines the reader will not be displeased to find the
following poetical version:-
"For when, with sacred pomp and solemn state,
Their great high priest the Romans consecrate,
His silken vest in Gabine cincture bound,
A festal fillet twines his temples round:
And, while aloft the gorgeous mitre shines,
His awful brow a golden crown confines.
In a deep dyke, for mystic ritual made,
He stands, surrounded with terrific shade.
High o'er his holy head a stage they place,
Adorn with paintings, and with statues grace;
Then with keen piercers perforate the floor,
Till thronging apertures admit no more.
Thither the victim ox is now convey'd,
To glut the vengeance of the thirsty blade.
The sacred spear his sturdy throat divides,
Down, instant streaming, gush the gory tides,
Through countless crevices the gaping wood
Distils corrupted dew and smoking blood;
Drop after drop, in swift succession shed,
Falls on the holy pontiff's mitred head;
While, to imbibe the sanctifying power,
His outspread garments drink the crimson shower;
Then on his back in reeking streams he lies,
And laves in livid blood his lips and eyes;
Bares every limb, exposes every pore,
To catch the virtue of the streaming gore;
With open mouth expects the falling flood,
Moistens his palate and his tongue with blood;
Extends his ears to meet the sanguine rain,
Nor lets a single drop descend in vain.
Then from the gloomy cave comes forth to light,
Bathed in black blood, and horrible to sight!-
By the vile torrent, and the victim slain,
In the dark cavern cleansed from mortal stain,
Their priest, enveloped in atoning gore,
With trembling awe surrounding throngs adore."
was born about the middle of the fourth century,
and was no doubt intimately acquainted with the circumstances he
又带了 亚伦 的儿子 来，把 些血 抹在他们的右 耳 垂 上和右 手 的大拇指 上，并右 脚 的大拇指 上，又把血 洒在 坛 的周围 。
And he brought Aaron's sons, and Moses put of the blood upon the tip of their right ear, and upon the thumbs of their right hands, and upon the great toes of their right feet: and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about.
取 脂油 和肥尾巴 ，并脏 上一切的脂油 与肝 上的网子 ，两 个腰子 和腰子上的脂油 ，并右 腿 ，
And he took the fat, and the rump, and all the fat that was
upon the inwards, and the caul above
the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and the right shoulder:
面前 、盛无酵 饼 的筐子 里取出 一 个无酵 饼 ，一个油 饼 ，一 个薄饼 ，都放在 脂油 和右 腿 上，
And out of the basket of unleavened bread, that was
before the LORD
, he took one unleavened cake, and a cake of oiled bread, and one wafer, and put them
on the fat, and upon the right shoulder:
把这一切放在 亚伦 的手 上和他儿子 的手 上作摇祭 ，在耶和华
面前 摇一摇 。
And he put all upon Aaron's hands, and upon his sons' hands, and waved them for
a wave offering before the LORD
摩西 从他们的手 上拿下来 ，烧在 坛 上的燔祭 上，都是为承接圣职 献给耶和华
馨 香 的火祭 。
And Moses took them from off their hands, and burnt them
on the altar upon the burnt offering: they were
consecrations for a sweet savour: it is
an offering made by fire unto the LORD
摩西 拿 羊 的胸 作为摇祭 ，在耶和华
面前 摇一摇 ，是承接圣职之礼 ，归摩西 的分 ，都是照耶和华 所吩咐 摩西 的。
And Moses took the breast, and waved it for
a wave offering before the LORD
of the ram of consecration it was Moses' part; as the LORD
摩西 取 点膏 油 和坛 上的血 ，弹 在亚伦 和他的衣服 上，并他儿子 和他儿子 的衣服 上，使他和他们的衣服 一同成圣 。
And Moses took of the anointing oil, and of the blood which was
upon the altar, and sprinkled it
upon Aaron, and
upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon his sons' garments with him; and sanctified Aaron, and
his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him.
Verse 30. And Moses took-the blood-and sprinkled it upon Aaron, &c.
] Thus we find that the high priest himself must be
sprinkled with the blood of the sacrifice; and our blessed Lord,
of whom Aaron was a type, was sprinkled with his own blood. 1.
In his agony in the garden. 2. In his being crowned with thorns.
3. In the piercing of his hands and his feet. And, 4. In his
side being pierced with the spear. All these were so many acts
of atonement performed by the high priest.
摩西 对亚伦 和他儿子 说 ：把肉 煮 在会 幕 门 口，在那里吃，又吃 承接圣职 筐子 里的饼 ，按我所吩咐 的说 （或作：按所吩咐我的说）：这是亚伦 和他儿子 要吃 的。
¶ And Moses said unto Aaron and to his sons, Boil the flesh at
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and there eat it with the bread that is
in the basket of consecrations, as I commanded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat it.
And that which remaineth of the flesh and of the bread shall ye burn with fire.
你们七 天 不可出 会 幕 的门 ，等到你们承接圣职 的日子 满了 ，因为主叫你们七 天 承接圣职 。
And ye shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle of the congregation in
seven days, until the days of your consecration be at an end: for seven days shall he consecrate you.
Verse 33. For seven days shall he consecrate you.
number was the number of perfection
among the Hebrews; and the
seven days' consecration implied a perfect
and full consecration
to the sacerdotal office. See Clarke on Ex 29:30
象今天 所行 的都是耶和华
吩咐 行 的，为你们赎罪 。
As he hath done this day, so
hath commanded to do, to make an atonement for you.
七 天 你们要昼 夜 住在 会 幕 门 口，遵守 耶和华
的吩咐 ，免得你们死亡 ，因为所吩咐 我的就是这样。
Therefore shall ye abide at
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation day and night seven days, and keep the charge of the LORD
, that ye die not: for so I am commanded.
于是亚伦 和他儿子 行了 耶和华
藉着摩西 所吩咐 的一切事 。
So Aaron and his sons did all things which the LORD
commanded by the hand of Moses.
Verse 36. So Aaron and his sons did
] This chapter shows the
exact fulfillment of the commands delivered to Moses, Ex xxix.;
and consequently the complete preparation of Aaron and his sons
to fill the awfully important office of priests and mediators
between God and Israel, to offer sacrifices and make atonement
for the sins of the people.
"Thus," says Mr. Ainsworth, "the covenant of the priesthood was
confirmed unto the tribe of Levi in Aaron and his sons, which
covenant was life and peace
, Mal 2:5
. But these are made
priests without an oath
; also, there were many priests
they were not suffered to continue by reason of death; and they
served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, offering
gifts and sacrifices which could not make him who did the service
perfect as pertaining to the conscience; for they were carnal
ordinances imposed upon them till the time of reformation, that
is, until the time of Christ, who was made a priest of God with an oath
, and made surety of a better covenant established on
better promises. And because he continueth for ever, he hath a
priesthood which passeth not from one to another, and is a
minister of the true tabernacle, which God pitched and not man.
Not by the blood of bulls and of goats, but by his own blood, he
entered once into the holy place, having found everlasting
redemption for us; and is therefore able to save to the uttermost
them who come unto God through him, as he ever liveth to make
intercession for them." Taken in reference to his priesthood and
sacrifice, all these rites and ceremonies are significant and
edifying, but taken out of his relation, they would be as absurd
and nugatory as the consecration of the Roman Pontifex Maximus,
mentioned above by Prudentius.