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1当时 ,耶稣 被 圣灵 引 到 旷野 ,受 魔鬼 的试探 。
1 Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.
1 CHAPTER IV.



Jesus, in the wilderness, is tempted by Satan, 1-11.

He goes into Galilee, 12;

and Capernaum, 13.

The prophecy which was thus fulfilled, 14-16.

He begins to preach publicly, 17.

Calls Simon Peter, and his brother Andrew, 18-20.

Calls also James and John, the sons of Zebedee, 21, 22.

Preaches and works miracles throughout Galilee, 23.

Becomes famous in Syria, and is followed by multitudes from

various quarters, among whom he works a great variety of

miracles, 24, 25.



NOTES ON CHAP. IV.



Verse 1. Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit] This

transaction appears to have taken place immediately after Christ's

baptism; and this bringing up of Christ was through the influence

of the Spirit of God; that Spirit which had rested upon him in his

baptism.



To be tempted] The first act of the ministry of Jesus Christ

was a combat with Satan. Does not this receive light from

Ge 3:17.

I will put enmity between the woman's seed and thy seed: it shall

bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

2他禁食 四十 昼 夜 ,后来 就饿了 。
2And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred.
2 Verse 2. And when he had fasted forty days] It is remarkable

that Moses, the great lawgiver of the Jews, previously to his

receiving the law from God, fasted forty days in the mount; that

Elijah, the chief of the prophets, fasted also forty days; and

that Christ, the giver of the New Covenant, should act in the same

way. Was not all this intended to show, that God's kingdom on

earth was to be spiritual and Divine?-that it should not consist

in meat and drink, but in righteousness, peace, and joy in the

Holy Ghost? Ro 14:17. Relative to the forty days' fast of

Moses, there is a beautiful saying in the Talmudists. "Is it

possible that any man can fast forty days and forty nights? To

which Rabbi Meir answered, When thou takest up thy abode in any

particular city, thou must live according to its customs. Moses

ascended to heaven, where they neither eat nor drink therefore he

became assimilated to them. We are accustomed to eat and drink;

and, when angels descend to us, they eat and drink also." Moses,

Elijah, and our blessed Lord could fast forty days and forty

nights, because they were in communion with God, and living a

heavenly life.

3那试探人的 进前来 ,对他 说 :你若 是 神 的儿子 ,可以吩咐 这些 石头 变成 食物 。
3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.
3 Verse 3. And when the tempter] This onset of Satan was made

(speaking after the manner of men) judiciously: he came when

Jesus, after having fasted forty days and forty nights, was

hungry: now, as hunger naturally diminishes the strength of the

body, the mind gets enfeebled, and becomes easily irritated; and

if much watching and prayer be not employed, the uneasiness which

is occasioned by a lack of food may soon produce impatience, and

in this state of mind the tempter has great advantages. The

following advice of an Arabian philosopher to his son is worthy of

attention. "My son, never go out of the house in the morning,

till thou hast eaten something: by so doing, thy mind will be more

firm; and, shouldest thou be insulted by any person, thou wilt

find thyself more disposed to suffer patiently: for hunger dries

up and disorders the brain." Bibliot. Orient. Suppl. p. 449. The

state of our bodily health and worldly circumstances may afford

our adversary many opportunities of doing us immense mischief. In

such cases, the sin to which we are tempted may be justly termed,

as in Heb 12:1,

τηνευπεριστατοναμαρτιαν, the well circumstanced sin, because all

the circumstances of time, place, and state of body and mind,

are favourable to it.



If thou be the Son of God] Or, a son of God, υιοςτουθεου.

υιος is here, and in Lu 4:3, written without the article; and

therefore should not be translated THE Son, as if it were ουιος,

which is a phrase that is applicable to Christ as the Messiah: but

it is certain, whatever Satan might suspect, he did not fully know

that the person he tempted was the true Messiah. Perhaps one

grand object of his temptation was to find this out.



Command that these stones] The meaning of this temptation is:

"Distrust the Divine providence and support, and make use of

illicit means to supply thy necessities."

4耶稣却回答 说 :经上记着 说:人 活着 ,不是 单 靠 食物 ,乃是 靠 神 口 里所出 的一切 话 。
4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.
4 Verse 4. But by (or, upon, επι) every word] ρημα, in

Greek, answers to dabar in Hebrew, which means not only a word

spoken, but also thing, purpose, appointment, &c. Our Lord's

meaning seems to be this: God purposes the welfare of his

creatures-all his appointments are calculated to promote this end.

Some of them may appear to man to have a contrary tendency; but

even fasting itself, when used in consequence of a Divine

injunction, becomes a mean of supporting that life which it seems

naturally calculated to impair or destroy.

5魔鬼 就 带 他 进了 圣 城 ,叫他 站 在殿 顶(顶:原文是翅 )上 ,
5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,
5 Verse 5. Pinnacle of the temple] It is very likely that this

was what was called the στοαβασιλικη, the king's gallery; which,

as Josephus says, "deserves to be mentioned among the most

magnificent things under the sun: for upon a stupendous depth of a

valley, scarcely to be fathomed by the eye of him that stands

above, Herod erected a gallery of a vast height, from the top of

which if any looked down, he would grow dizzy, his eyes not being

able to reach so vast a depth."-Ant. l. xv. c. 14. See Dr.

Lightfoot on this place.

6对他 说 :你 若 是 神 的儿子 ,可以跳 下去 ,因为 经上记着 说:主要为 你 吩咐 他的 使者 用 手 托着 你 ,免得 你的 脚 碰 在石头 上 。
6And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
6 Verse 6. Cast thyself down] Our Lord had repelled the first

temptation by an act of confidence in the power and goodness of

God; and now Satan solicits him to make trial of it. Through the

unparalleled subtlety of Satan, the very means we make use of to

repel one temptation may he used by him as the groundwork of

another. This method he often uses, in order to confound us in

our confidence.



He shall give his angels charge, &c.] This is a mutilated

quotation of Ps 91:11.

The clause, to keep thee in all thy ways, Satan chose to leave

out, as quite unsuitable to his design. That God has promised to

protect and support his servants, admits of no dispute; but, as

the path of duty is the way of safety, they are entitled to no

good when they walk out of it.



In their hands they shall bear thee up] This quotation from

Ps 91:11, is a metaphor taken from a nurse's management of her

child: in teaching it to walk, she guides it along plain ground;

but, when stones or other obstacles occur, she lifts up the child,

and carries it over them, and then sets it down to walk again.

Thus she keeps it in all its ways, watching over, and guarding

every step it takes. To this St. Paul seems also to allude,

1Th 2:7.

We were gentle among you, even as a nurse cherisheth her children.

Thus the most merciful God deals with the children of men, ever

guarding them by his eye, and defending them by his power.

7耶稣 对他 说 :经上又 记着 说:不可 试探 主 ―你的 神 。
7Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
7 Verse 7. Thou shalt not tempt] To expose myself to any danger

naturally destructive, with the vain presumption that God will

protect and defend me from the ruinous consequences of my

imprudent conduct, is to tempt God.

8魔鬼 又 带 他 上了 一座最 高的 山 ,将世上 的万 国 与 万国的荣华 都指给他 看 ,
8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;
8 Verse 8. An exceeding high mountain, and showeth him] If the

words, all the kingdoms of the world, be taken in a literal sense,

then this must have been a visionary representation, as the

highest mountain on the face of the globe could not suffice to

make evident even one hemisphere of the earth, and the other must

of necessity be in darkness.



But if we take the world to mean only the land of Judea, and

some of the surrounding nations, as it appears sometimes to

signify, (see on Lu 2:1,) then the mountain described by the Abbe

Mariti (Travels through Cyprus, &c.) could have afforded the

prospect in question. Speaking of it, he says, "Here we enjoyed

the most beautiful prospect imaginable. This part of the mountain

overlooks the mountains of Arabia, the country of Gilead, the

country of the Amorites, the plains of Moab, the plains of

Jericho, the river Jordan, and the whole extent of the Dead Sea.

It was here that the devil said to the Son of God, All these

kingdoms will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me."

Probably St. Matthew, in the Hebrew original, wrote haarets,

which signifies the world, the earth, and often the land of Judea

only. What renders this more probable is, that at this time Judea

was divided into several kingdoms, or governments under the three

sons of Herod the Great, viz. Archelaus, Antipas, and Philip;

which are not only called ethnarchs and tetrarchs in the Gospels,

but also βασιλεις, kings, and are said βασιλευειν, to reign,

as Rosenmuller has properly remarked. See Mt 2:22; 14:9.

9对他 说 :你若 俯伏 拜 我 ,我就把这 一切 都赐给 你 。
9And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
9 Verse 9. If thou wilt fall dozen and worship me] As if he had

said, "The whole of this land is now under my government; do me

homage for it, and I will deliver it into thy hand."

10耶稣 说 :撒但 (撒但就是抵挡的意思,乃魔鬼的别名),退去罢 !因为 经上记着 说:当拜 主 你的 神 ,单要 事奉 他 。
10Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
10 Verse 10. Get thee hence] Or, behind me, οπισωμου. This is

added by a multitude of the best MSS., VERSIONS, and FATHERS. This

temptation savouring of nothing but diabolical impudence, Jesus

did not treat it as the others; but, with Divine authority,

commanded the tempter to return to his own place.



In the course of this trial, it appears that our blessed Lord

was tempted, 1st. To DISTRUST. Command these stones to become

bread. 2dly. To PRESUMPTION. Cast thyself down. 3dly. To

worldly AMBITION. All these will I give. 4thly. To IDOLATRY.

Fall down and worship me, or do me homage. There is probably not

a temptation of Satan, but is reducible to one or other of these

four articles.



From the whole we may learn:



First. No man, howsoever holy, is exempted from temptation: for

God manifested to the flesh was tempted by the devil.



Secondly. That the best way to foil the adversary, is by the

sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, Eph 6:17.



Thirdly. That to be tempted even to the greatest abominations

(while a person resists) is not sin: for Christ was tempted to

worship the DEVIL.



Fourthly. That there is no temptation which is from its own

nature, or favouring circumstances, irresistible. God has

promised to bruise even Satan under our feet.



As I wish to speak what I think most necessary on every subject,

when I first meet it, and once for all, I would observe, first,

That the fear of being tempted may become a most dangerous snare.



Secondly, That when God permits a temptation or trial to come he

will give grace to bear or overcome it.



Thirdly, That our spiritual interests shall be always advanced,

in proportion to our trials and faithful resistance.



Fourthly, That a more than ordinary measure of Divine

consolation shall be the consequence of every victory.

11于是 ,魔鬼 离了 耶稣,有天使 来 伺候 他 。
11 Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him.
11 Verse 11. Behold, angels came and ministered unto him.] That

is, brought that food which was necessary to support nature.



The name given to Satan in the third verse is very emphatic, ο

πειραζων, the tempter, or trier, from πειρω, to pierce

through. To this import of the name there seems to be an allusion,

Eph 6:16:

The fiery DARTS of the wicked one. This is the precise idea of

the word in De 8:2.

To humble thee, and to prove thee, TO KNOW WHAT WAS IN THY HEART:

linesteca, πειρασησε, LXX. that he might bore thee

through. The quality and goodness of many things are proved by

piercing or boring through; for this shows what is in the heart.

Perhaps nothing tends so much to discover what we are, as trials

either from men or devils.



Shalt thou serve, or pay religious veneration, λαρρευσεις.

This is Mr. Wakefield's translation, and I think cannot be mended.

λατρεια comes from λα, very much, and τρεω, I tremble.

When a sinner approaches the presence of God, conscious of HIS

infinite holiness and justice, and of his own vileness, he will

then fully comprehend what this word means. See this religious

reverence exemplified in the case of Moses, when in the presence

of God; I exceedingly fear, said he, and tremble, Heb 12:21.

And yet this fear of God is the beginning of wisdom. See the

observations at the end of the chapter.

12耶稣 听见 约翰 下了监 ,就退 到 加利利 去;




12 ¶ Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee;
13后又 离开 拿撒勒 ,往迦百农 去 ,就住 在那里 。那 地方靠海 ,在西布伦 和 拿弗他利 的边界 上 。
13 And leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim:
13 Verse 13. And leaving Nazareth] Or, entirely leaving Nazareth,

καικαταλιπωντηνναζαρετ, from κατα, intensive, and δειπω,

I leave. It seems that, from this time, our blessed Lord made

Capernaum his ordinary place of residence; and utterly forsook

Nazareth, because they had wholly rejected his word, and even

attempted to take away his life. See Lu 4:29.



Galilee was bounded by mount Lebanon on the north, by the river

Jordan and the sea of Galilee on the east, by Chison on the south,

and by the Mediterranean on the west.



Nazareth, a little city in the tribe of Zebulon, in lower

Galilee, with Tabor on the east, and Ptolemais on the west. It is

supposed that this city was the usual residence of our Lord for

the first thirty years of his life. It was here he became

incarnate, lived in subjection to Joseph and Mary, and from which

he took the name of a Nazorean.



Capernaum, a city famous in the New Testament, but never

mentioned in the Old. Probably it was one of those cities which

the Jews built after their return from Babylon. It stood on the

sea-coast of Galilee, on the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim, as

mentioned in the text. This was called his own city, Mt 9:1,

&c., and here, as a citizen, he paid the half shekel, Mt 17:24.

Among the Jews, if a man became a resident in any city for twelve

months, he thereby became a citizen, and paid his proportion of

dues and taxes. See Lightfoot. Capernaum is well known to have

been the principal scene of our Lord's miracles during the three

years of his public ministry.



Zabulon, the country of this tribe, in which Nazareth and

Capernaum were situated, bordered on the lake of Gennesareth,

stretching to the frontiers of Sidon, Ge 49:13. Nephthalim was

contiguous to it, and both were on the east side of Jordan,

Jos 19:34.

14这 是要应验 先知 以赛亚 的话 ,
14That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,
15说 :西布伦 地 ,拿弗他利 地 ,就是沿海 的路 ,约但河 外 ,外邦人 的加利利 地。
15The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles;
15 Verse 15. Galilee of the Gentiles] Or of the nations. So

called, because it was inhabited by Egyptians, Arabians, and

Phoenicians, according to the testimony of Strabo and others. The

Hebrew goyim, and the Greek εθνων, signify nations; and,

in the Old and New Testaments, mean those people who were not

descendants of any of the twelve tribes. The word Gentiles, from

gens, a nation, signifies the same. It is worthy of remark, that

it was a regular tradition among the ancient Jews, that the

Messiah should begin his ministry in Galilee. See the proofs in

Schoetgen.

16那 坐 在黑暗 里 的百姓 看见了 大 光 ;坐 在 死 荫 之地 的人有光 发现 照着他们 。
16The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up.
16 Verse 16. The people which sat in darkness] This is quoted

from Isa 9:2,

where, instead of sitting, the prophet used the word walked. The

evangelist might on purpose change the term, to point out the

increased misery of the state of these persons. Sitting in

darkness expresses a greater degree of intellectual blindness,

than walking in darkness does. In the time of Christ's appearing,

the people were in a much worse state than in the time of the

prophet, which was nearly 700 years before; as, during all this

period, they were growing more ignorant and sinful.



The region and shadow of death] These words are amazingly

descriptive. A region of death-DEATH'S country, where, in a

peculiar manner, Death lived, reigned, and triumphed, subjecting

all the people to his sway.



Shadow of death] σκιαθανατου, used only here and in Lu 1:79,

but often in the Old Covenant, where the Hebrew is tsal

maveth, It is not easy to enter fully into the ideal meaning of

this term. As in the former clause, death is personified, so

here. A shadow is that darkness cast upon a place by a body

raised between it and the light or sun. Death is here represented

as standing between the land above mentioned, and the light of

life, or Sun of righteousness; in consequence of which, all the

inhabitants were, involved in a continual cloud of intellectual

darkness, misery, and sin. The heavenly sun was continually

eclipsed to them, till this glorious time, when Jesus Christ, the

true light, shone forth in the beauty of holiness and truth.

Christ began his ministry in Galilee, and frequented this

uncultivated place more than he did Jerusalem and other parts of

Judea: here his preaching was peculiarly needful; and by this was

the prophecy fulfilled.

17从 那时候 ,耶稣 就传起道 来 ,说 :天 国 近了 ,你们应当悔改 !




17 ¶ From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.
17 Verse 17. Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent] See on

Mt 3:1, 2. Every preacher commissioned by God to proclaim

salvation to a lost world, begins his work with preaching the

doctrine of repentance. This was the case with all the prophets,

John the Baptist, Jesus Christ, all the apostles, and all their

genuine successors in the Christian ministry. The reasons are

evident in the notes already referred to; and for the explanation

of the word κηρυσσειν, preaching or proclaiming as a herald, see

at the end of chap. 3.

18耶稣 在加利利 海 边 行走 ,看见 弟兄 二人 ,就是那称呼 彼得 的西门 和 他 兄弟 安得烈 ,在海 里 撒 网 ;他们本是 打鱼的 。




18 ¶ And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.
18 Verse 18. Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother] Why did

not Jesus Christ call some of the eminent Scribes or Pharisees to

publish his Gospel, and not poor unlearned fishermen, without

credit or authority? Because it was the kingdom of heaven they

were to preach, and their teaching must come from above: besides,

the conversion of sinners, though it be effected instrumentally by

the preaching of the Gospel, yet the grand agent in it is the

Spirit of God. As the instruments were comparatively mean, and,

the work which was accomplished by them was grand and glorious,

the excellency of the power at once appeared to be of GOD, and not

of man; and thus the glory, due alone to his name, was secured,

and the great Operator of all good had the deserved praise.

Seminaries of learning, in the order of God's providence and

grace, have great and important uses; and, in reference to such

uses, they should be treated with great respect: but to make

preachers of the Gospel is a matter to which they are utterly

inadequate; it is a, prerogative that God never did, and never

will, delegate to man.



Where the seed of the kingdom of God is sowed, and a

dispensation of the Gospel is committed to a man, a good education

may be of great and general use: but it no more follows, because a

man has had a good education, that therefore he is qualified to

preach the Gospel, than it does, that because he has not had that,

therefore he is unqualified; for there may be much ignorance of

Divine things where there is much human learning; and a man may be

well taught in the things of God, and be able to teach others, who

has not had the advantages of a liberal education.



Men-made ministers have almost ruined the heritage of God. To

prevent this, our Church requires that a man be inwardly moved to

take upon himself this ministry, before he can be ordained to it.

And he who cannot say, that he trusts (has rational and Scriptural

conviction) that he is moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon

himself this office, is an intruder into the heritage of God, and

his ordination, ipso facto, vitiated and of none effect. See the

truly apostolic Ordination Service of the Church of England.



Fishers.] Persons employed in a lawful and profitable

avocation, and faithfully discharging their duty in it. It was a

tradition of the elders, that one of Joshua's ten precepts was,

that all men should have an equal right to spread their nets and

fish in the sea of Tiberias, or Galilee. The persons mentioned

here were doubtless men of pure morals; for the minister of God

should have a good report from them that are without.

19耶稣对他们 说 :来 跟从 我 ,我要叫 你们 得人 如得鱼一样。
19And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.
19 Verse 19. Follow me] Come after me, δευτεοπισωμου. Receive

my doctrines, imitate me in my conduct-in every respect be my

disciples. We may observe that most of the calls of God to man

are expressed in a few solemn words, which alarm, the conscience,

and deeply impress the heart.



I will make you fishers of men.] Ezekiel Eze 47:8-10, casts

much light on this place; and to this prophet our Lord probably

alludes. To follow Christ, and be admitted into a partnership of

his ministry, is a great honour; but those only who are by himself

fitted for it, God calls. Miserable are those who do not wait fur

this call-who presume to take the name of fishers of men, and know

not how to cast the net of the Divine word, because not brought to

an acquaintance with the saving power of the God who bought them.

Such persons, having only their secular interest in view, study

not to catch men, but to catch money: and though, for charity's

sake, it may be said of a pastor of this spirit, he does not enter

the sheepfold as a thief, yet he certainly lives as a hireling.

See Quesnel.



Some teach to work, but have no hands to row;

Some will be eyes, but have no light to see;

Some will be guides, but have no feet to go;

Some deaf, yet ears, some dumb, yet tongues will be;

Dumb, deaf, lame, blind, and maimed, yet fishers all!

Fit for no use but store an hospital.

Fletcher's Piscatory Eclogues. Ec. iv. 5, 18.



Following a person, in the Jewish phrase, signifies being his

disciple or scholar. See a similar mode of speech, 2Ki 6:19.

20他们就 立刻 捨了 网 ,跟从了 他 。
20 And they straightway left their nets, and followed him.
20 Verse 20. They straightway left their nets] A change, as far

as it respected secular things, every way to their disadvantage.

The proud and the profane may exult and say, "Such preachers as

these cannot be much injured by their sacrifices of secular

property-they have nothing but nets, &c., to leave." Let such

carpers at the institution of Christ know, that he who has nothing

but a net, and leaves that for the sake of doing good to the souls

of men, leaves his ALL: besides, he lived comfortably by his net

before; but, in becoming the servant of all for Christ's sake, he

often exposes himself to the want of even a morsel of bread. See

on Mt 19:27.

21从那里 往前走 ,又 看见 弟兄 二人 ,就是西庇太 的儿子 雅各 和 他 兄弟 约翰 ,同 他们的 父亲 西庇太 在船 上 补 网 ,耶稣就招呼 他们 ,
21 And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and he called them.
22他们立刻 捨了 船 ,别了父亲 ,跟从了 耶稣 。
22 And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.
22 Verse 22. Left the ship and their father] By the ship, το

πλοιον, we are to understand the mere fishing-boat, used for

extending their nets in the water and bringing the hawser or rope

of the farther end to shore, by which the net was pulled to land.

But why should these be called to leave their employment and their

father, probably now aged? To this I answer, that to be obedient

to, provide for, and comfort our parents, is the highest duty we

owe or can discharge, except that to God. But, when God calls to

the work of the ministry, father and mother and all must be left.

Were we necessary to their comfort and support before? Then God,

if he call us into another work or state, will take care to supply

to them our lack of service some other way; and, if this be not

done, it is a proof we have mistaken our call. Again, were our

parents necessary to us, and in leaving them for the sake of the

Gospel, or in obedience to a Divine command, do we deprive

ourselves of the comforts of life? No matter: we should prefer

the honour of serving the Most High, even in poverty and humility,

to all the comforts of a father's house. But what an honour was

the vocation of James and John, to old Zebedee their father! His

sons are called to be heralds of the God of heaven! Allowing him

to have been a pious man, this must have given him unutterable

delight.

23耶稣 走 遍 加利利 ,在各会堂 里 教训 人,传 天国 的福音 ,医治 百姓 各样的 病症 。




23 ¶ And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people.
23 Verse 23. Teaching in their synagogues] Synagogue, συναγωγη,

from συν, together, and αγω, I bring, a public assembly of

persons, or the place where such persons publicly assembled.

Synagogues, among the Jews, were not probably older than the

return from the Babylonish captivity. They were erected not only

in cities and towns, but in the country, and especially by rivers,

that they might have water for the convenience of their frequent

washings.



Not less than ten persons of respectability composed a

synagogue; as the rabbins supposed that this number of persons, of

independent property, and well skilled in the law, were necessary

to conduct the affairs of the place, and keep up the Divine

worship. See Lightfoot. Therefore, where this number could not

be found, no synagogue was built; but there might be many

synagogues in one city or town, provided it were populous.

Jerusalem is said to have contained 480. This need not be

wondered at, when it is considered that every Jew was obliged to

worship God in public, either in a synagogue or in the temple.



The chief things belonging to a synagogue were:



1st. The ark or chest, made after the mode of the ark of the

covenant, containing the Pentateuch.



2dly. The pulpit and desk, in the middle of the synagogue, on

which he stood who read or expounded the law.



3dly. The seats or pews for the men below, and the galleries

for the women above.



4thly. The lamps to give light in the evening service, and at

the feast of the dedication. And,



5thly. Apartments for the utensils and alms-chests.



The synagogue was governed by a council or assembly, over whom

was a president, called in the Gospels, the ruler of the

synagogue. These are sometimes called chiefs of the Jews, the

rulers, the priests or elders, the governors, the

overseers, the fathers of the synagogue. Service was performed in

them three times a day-morning, afternoon, and night. Synagogue,

among the Jews, had often the same meaning as congregation among

us, or place of judicature, see Jas 2:2.



Preaching the Gospel of the kingdom] Or, proclaiming the glad

tidings of the kingdom. See the preceding notes. Behold here the

perfect pattern of an evangelical preacher: 1. He goes about

seeking sinners on every side, that he may show them the way to

heaven. 2. He proclaims the glad tidings of the kingdom, with a

freedom worthy of the King whom he serves. 3. He makes his

reputation and the confidence of the people subservient not to his

own interest, but to the salvation of souls. 4. To his preaching

he joins, as far as he has ability, all works of mercy, and

temporal assistance to the bodies of men. 5. He takes care to

inform men that diseases, and all kinds of temporal evils, are the

effects of sin, and that their hatred to iniquity should increase

in proportion to the evils they endure through it. 6. And that

nothing but the power of God can save them from sin and its

consequences.



For glad tidings, or Gospel, see chap. 1. title. Proclaiming,

see Mt 3:1, and end;

and for the meaning of kingdom, see Mt 3:2.



All manner of sickness, and all manner of disease] There is a

difference between νοσος, translated here sickness, and μαλακια,

translated disease. The first is thus defined: νοσοςτηνχρονιαν

κακοπαθειαν, a disease of some standing, a chronic disorder.



Infirmity, μαλακιατηνπροσκαιρονανωμαλιαντοισωματος, a

temporary disorder of the body. Theophylact. This is a proper

distinction, and is necessary to be observed.

24他的 名声 就 传 遍了 叙利亚 。那里的人把一切 害 病 的,就是害 各样 疾病 、各样疼痛 的和 被鬼附 的、癫痫 的、瘫痪 的,都带了来 ,耶稣就 治好了 他们 。
24 And his fame went throughout all Syria: and they brought unto him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those which were possessed with devils, and those which were lunatick, and those that had the palsy; and he healed them.
24 Verse 24. Sick people] τουςκακωςεχοντας, those who felt

ill-were afflicted with any species of malady.



And torments] βασανοις, from βασανιζω, to examine by

torture, such as cholics, gouts, and rheumatisms, which racked

every joint.



Possessed with devils] Daemoniacs. Persons possessed by evil

spirits. This is certainly the plain obvious meaning of daemoniac

in the Gospels.



Many eminent men think that the sacred writers accommodated

themselves to the unfounded prejudices of the common people, in

attributing certain diseases to the influence of evil spirits,

which were merely the effects of natural causes: but that this

explanation can never comport with the accounts given of these

persons shall be proved as the places occur.



Our common version, which renders the word, those possessed by

devils, is not strictly correct; as the word devil, διαβολος, is

not found in the plural in any part of the Sacred Writings, when

speaking of evil spirits: for though there are multitudes of

daemons, Mr 5:9,

yet it appears there is but one DEVIL, who seems to be supreme, or

head, over all the rest. διαβολος signifies an accuser or

slanderer, 1Ti 3:11; 2Ti 3:3; Tit 2:3. Perhaps Satan was

called so, 1st. because he accused or slandered God in paradise,

as averse from the increase of man's knowledge and happiness,

Ge 3:5; Joh 8:44;

and 2dly. because he is the accuser of men, Re 12:9, 10.

See also Clarke on "Job 1:2".

The word comes from δια, through, and βαλλειν, to cast, or

shoot, because of the influence of his evil suggestions; compared,

Eph 6:16,

to fiery darts; and thus it is nearly of the same meaning with

οπειραζων, he who pierces through. See on Mt 4:3.



Lunatic] Persons afflicted with epileptic or other disorders,

which are always known to have a singular increase at the change

and full of the moon. This undoubtedly proceeds from the

superadded attractive influence of the sun and moon upon the

earth's atmosphere, as, in the periods mentioned above, these two

luminaries are both in conjunction; and their united attractive

power being exerted on the earth at the same time, not only causes

the flux and reflux of the ocean, but occasions a variety of

important changes in the bodies of infirm persons, of animals in

general, but more particularly in those who are more sensible of

these variations. And is this any wonder, when it is well known,

that a very slight alteration in the atmosphere causes the most

uncomfortable sensations to a number of invalids! But sometimes

even these diseases were caused by demons. See on Mt 8:16, 34,

and Mt 17:15.



Palsy] Palsy is defined, a sudden loss of tone and vital power

in a certain part of the human body. This may affect a limb, the

whole side, the tongue, or the whole body. This disorder is in

general incurable, except by the miraculous power of God, unless

in its slighter stages.



He healed them.] Either with a word or a touch; and thus proved

that all nature was under his control.

25当下 ,有许多人 从 加利利 、低加波利 、耶路撒冷 、犹太 、约但河 外 来跟着 他 。
25And there followed him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judaea, and from beyond Jordan.
25 Verse 25. This verse is immediately connected with the fifth

chapter, and should not be separated from it.



Great multitudes] This, even according to the Jews, was one

proof of the days of the Messiah: for they acknowledged that in

his time there should be a great famine of the word of God; and

thus they understood Amos, Am 8:11.

Behold, the days come-that I will send a famine in the land, not a

famine of bread-but of hearing the words of the Lord. And as the

Messiah was to dispense this word, the bread of life, hence they

believed that vast multitudes from all parts should be gathered

together to him. See Schoettgenius on this place.



Decapolis] A small country, situated between Syria and Galilee

of the nations. It was called Decapolis, δεκαπολις, from δεκα,

ten, and πολις, a city, because it contained only ten cities;

the metropolis, and most ancient of which, was Damascus.



From beyond Jordan.] Or, from the side of Jordan. Probably

this was the country which was occupied anciently by the two

tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh; for the

country of Decapolis lay on both sides of the river Jordan. See

Nu 32:5, 33.



THE account of our Lord's temptation, as given by the

evangelist, is acknowledged on all hands to be extremely

difficult. Two modes of interpretation have been generally

resorted to, in order to make the whole plain and intelligible:

viz. the literal and allegorical. In all cases, where it can

possibly apply, I prefer the first: the latter should never be

used, unless obviously indicated in the text itself; or so

imperiously necessary that no other mode of interpretation can

possibly apply. In the preceding observations, I have taken up

the subject in a literal point of view; and it is hoped that most

of the difficulties in the relation have been removed, or

obviated, by this plan. An ingenious correspondent has favoured

me with some observations on the subject, which have much more

than the merit of novelty to recommend them. I shall give an

abstract of some of the most striking; and leave the whole to the

reader's farther consideration.



The thoughts in this communication proceed on this ground:

"These temptations were addressed to Christ as a public person,

and respected his conduct in the execution of his ministry; and

are reported to his Church as a forcible and practical

instruction, concerning the proper method of promoting the kingdom

of God upon earth. They are warnings against those Satanic

illusions, by which the servants of Christ are liable to be

hindered in their great work, and even stopped in the

prosecution of it.



"As our Lord had, at his baptism, been declared to be the SON of

God, i.e. the promised Messiah, this was probably well known to

Satan, who did not mean to insinuate any thing to the contrary,

when he endeavoured to engage him to put forth an act of that

power which he possessed as the Messiah. The mysterious union of

the Divine with the human nature, in our Lord's state of

humiliation, Satan might think possible to be broken; and

therefore endeavoured, in the first temptation, Command these

stones to be made bread, to induce our Lord to put forth a

separate, independent act of power; which our Lord repelled, by

showing his intimate union with the Divine will, which he was come

to fulfil-Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word

that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Thus showing, as he did

on another occasion, that it was his meat and drink to do the will

of his Father.



"2. The ground of the temptation was then changed; and the

fulfilment of the Divine will, in the completion of a prophetic

promise, was made the ostensible object of the next attack. Cast

thyself down-for it is WRITTEN, He will give his angels charge

concerning thee, and in their hands shall they bear thee up, &c.

This our Lord repelled with-Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy

God-as Satan had designed to induce him to seek this public

miraculous confirmation of God's peculiar care over him, as the

promised Messiah, of his being which, according to the hypothesis

above, Satan had no doubt. Moses, being appointed to a great and

important work, needed miraculous signs to strengthen his faith;

but the sacred humanity of our blessed Lord needed them not; nor

did his wisdom judge that such a sign from heaven was essential to

the instruction of the people.



"3. The last temptation was the most subtle and the most

powerful-All these will I give unto thee, if thou wilt fall down

and worship me. To inherit all nations, had been repeatedly

declared to be the birthright of the Messiah. His right to

universal empire could not be controverted; nor could Satan

presume to make the investiture. What, then, was his purpose?

Satan had hitherto opposed, and that with considerable success,

the kingdom of God upon earth; and what he appears to propose

here, were terms of peace, and an honourable retreat. The worship

which he exacted was an act of homage, in return for his cession

of that ascendancy which, through the sin of man, he had obtained

in the world. Having long established his rule among men, it was

not at first to be expected that he would resign it without a

combat: but the purpose of this last temptation appears to be an

offer to decline any farther contest; and, yet more, if his terms

were accepted, apparently to engage his influence to promote the

kingdom of the Messiah. And as the condition of this proposed

alliance, he required, not Divine worship, but such an act of

homage as implied amity and obligation; and if this construction

be allowed, he may be supposed to have enforced the necessity of

the measure, by every suggestion of the consequences of a refusal.

The sufferings which would inevitably result from a provoked

opposition, which would render the victory, though certain to

Christ himself, dearly bought; added to which, the conflict he

was prepared to carry on through succeeding ages, in which all his

subtlety and powers should be employed to hinder the progress of

Christ's cause in the earth, and that with a considerable degree

of anticipated success. Here the devil seems to propose to make

over to Christ the power and influence he possessed in this world,

on condition that he would enter into terms of peace with him; and

the inducement offered was, that thereby our Lord should escape

those sufferings, both in his own person, and in that of his

adherents, which a provoked contest would ensure. And we may

suppose that a similar temptation lies hid in the desires excited

even in some of the servants of Christ, who may feel themselves

often induced to employ worldly influence and power for the

promotion of his kingdom, even though, in so doing, an apparent

communion of Christ and Belial is the result: for it will be found

that neither worldly riches, nor power, can be employed in the

service of Christ, till, like the spoils taken in war,

De 31:21-23, they have passed through the fire and water, as,

without a Divine purification, they are not fit to be employed in

the service of God and his Church.



"Hence we may conclude, that the first temptation had for its

professed object, 1st, our Lord's personal relief and comfort,

through the inducement of performing a separate and independent

act of power.-The second temptation professed to have in view his

public acknowledgment by the people, as the MESSIAH: for, should

they see him work such a miracle as throwing himself down from the

pinnacle of the temple without receiving any hurt, they would be

led instantly to acknowledge his Divine mission; and the evil of

this temptation may be explained, as seeking to secure the success

of his mission by other means than those which, as the Messiah, he

had received from the Father. Compare Joh 14:31.

The third temptation was a subtle attempt to induce Christ to

acknowledge Satan as an ally, in the establishment of his

kingdom." E. M. B.



The above is the substance of the ingenious theory of my

correspondent, which may be considered as a third mode of

interpretation, partaking equally of the allegoric and literal. I

still, however, think, that the nearer we keep to the letter in

all such difficult cases, the more tenable is our ground,

especially where the subject itself does not obviously require the

allegorical mode of interpretation. Among many things worthy of

remark in the preceding theory the following deserves most

attention: That Satan is ever ready to tempt the governors and

ministers of the Christian Church to suppose that worldly means,

human policy, secular interest and influence, are all essentially

necessary for the support and extension of that kingdom which is

not of this world! Such persons can never long preserve hallowed

hands: they bring the world into the Church; endeavour to sanctify

the bad means they use, by the good end they aim at; and often, in

the prosecution of their object, by means which are not of God's

devising, are driven into straits and difficulties, and to

extricate themselves, tell lies for God's sake. This human policy

is from beneath-God will neither sanction nor bless it. It has

been the bane of true religion in all ages of the world; and, in

every country where the cause of Christianity has been

established, such schemers and plotters in the Church of God are

as dangerous to its interests as a plague is to the health of

society. The governors and ministers of the Christian Church

should keep themselves pure, and ever do God's work in his own

way. If the slothful servant should be cast out of the vineyard,

he that corrupts the good seed of the Divine field, or sows tares

among the wheat, should be considered as an enemy to

righteousness, and be expelled from the sacred pale as one who

closes in with the temptation-"All these things (the kingdoms of

the world, and the glory of them) will I give unto THEE, if thou

wilt fall down and worship ME." However necessary the Church may

be to the state, and the state to the Church, as some people

argue, yet the latter is never in so much danger as when the

former smiles upon it.

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