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施舍不可张扬

1 “你们小心,不要在众人面前行你们的义,让他们看见;如果这样,就得不到你们天父的赏赐。
1 Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.
1 CHAPTER VI.



Of alms-giving, 1-5.

Of prayer, 6-8.

The Lord's prayer, or model according to which Christians

should pray, 9-13.

Of forgiveness, 14, 15.

Of fasting, 16, 17.

Of laying up treasures, 18-21.

Of the single eye, 22, 23.

The impossibility of serving two masters, 24.

Of contentment and confidence in the Divine providence, 25-32.

Directions about seeking the kingdom of God, 33, 34.



NOTES ON CHAP. VI.



Verse 1. That ye do not your alms] δικαιοσυνηνυμωνμη

ποιειν, perform not your acts of righteousness-such as

alms-giving, fasting, and prayer, mentioned immediately after.

Instead of δικαιοσυνην, righteousness, or acts of righteousness,

the reading in the text, that which has been commonly received is

ελεημοσυνην, alms. But the first reading has been inserted in

several editions, and is supported by the Codd. Vatican. and

Bezae, some others, and several versions, all the Itala except

one, and the Vulgate. The Latin fathers have justitiam, a word of

the same meaning. Mr. Gregory has amply proved, tsidekeh,

righteousness, was a common word for alms among the Jews. Works,

4to. p. 58, 1671. R. D. Kimchi says that tsidekeh,

,

means alms-giving; and the phrase natan tsidekah, is

used by the Jews to signify the giving of alms. The following

passages from Dr. Lightfoot show that it was thus commonly used

among the Jewish writers:-



"It is questioned," says he, "whether Matthew writ ελεημοσυνην,

alms, or δικαιοσυνην, righteousness. I answer:-



"I. That, our Saviour certainly said tsidekah,

righteousness, (or, in Syriac zidkatha,) I make no doubt at

all; but, that that word could not be otherwise understood by the

common people than of alms, there is as little doubt to be made.

For although the word tsidekah, according to the idiom of the

Old Testament, signifies nothing else than righteousness; yet now,

when our Saviour spoke these words, it signified nothing so much

as alms.



"II. Christ used also the same word zidkatha,

righteousness, in time three verses next following, and Matthew

used the word ελεημοσυνην, alms; but by what right, I beseech you,

should he call it δικαιοσυνην, righteousness, in the first verse,

and ελεημοσυνην, alms, in the following; when Christ every where

used one and the same word? Matthew might not change in Greek,

where our Saviour had not changed in Syriac: therefore we must say

that the Lord Jesus used the word tsidekeh or

zidkatha, in these four first verses; but that, speaking in the

dialect of common people, he was understood by the common people

to speak of alms. Now they called alms by the name of

righteousness, for the fathers of the traditions taught, and the

common people believed, that alms contributed very much to

justification. Hear the Jewish chair in this matter-For one

farthing given to a poor man in alms, a man is made partaker of

the beatific vision: where it renders these words, ,

I shall behold thy face in righteousness, after this manner, I

shall behold thy face, BECAUSE of ALMS. Bava. Bathra.



"This money goeth for alms, that my sons may live, and that I

may obtain the world to come. Bab. Rosh. Hashshanah.



"A man's table now expiates by alms, as heretofore the altar did

by sacrifice. Beracoth.



"If you afford alms out of your purse, God will keep you from

all damage and harm. Hieros. Peah.



"MONOBAZES the king bestowed his goods liberally upon the poor,

and had these words spoken to him by his kinsmen and friends-'Your

ancestors increased both their own riches, and those that were

left them by their fathers; but you waste both your own and those

of your ancestors.' To whom he answered-'My fathers laid up their

wealth on earth: I lay up mine in heaven. As it is written, Truth

shall flourish out of the earth, but Righteousness shall look down

from heaven. My fathers laid up treasures that bear no fruit; but

I lay up such as bear fruit. As it is said, It shall be well with

the just, for they shall eat the fruit of their own works. My

fathers treasured up, when power was in their hands; but I where

it is not. As it is said, Justice and judgment is the habitation

of his throne. My fathers heaped up for others; I for myself. As

it is said, And this shall be to thee for righteousness. They

scraped together for this world. I for the world to come. As it

is said, Righteousness shall deliver from death.' Ibid. These

things are also recited in the Babylonian Talmud.



"You see plainly in what sense he understands righteousness,

namely, in the sense of alms: and that sense not so much framed in

his own imagination, as in that of the whole nation, and which the

royal catachumen had imbibed from the Pharisees his teachers.



"Behold the justifying and saving virtue of alms, from the very

work done according to the doctrine of the Pharisaical chair! And

hence, the opinion of this efficacy of alms so far prevailed with

the deceived people, that they pointed out alms by no other name

(confined within one single word) than tsidekah,

righteousness. Perhaps those words of our Saviour are spoken in

derision of this doctrine. Yea, give those things which ye have

in alms, and behold all things shall be clean to you, .

With good reason indeed exhorting them to give alms; but yet

withal striking at the covetousness of the Pharisees, and

confuting their vain opinion of being clean by the washing of

their hands, from their own opinion of the efficacy of alms. As if

he had said, "Ye assert that alms justifies and saves, and

therefore ye call it by the name of righteousness; why therefore

do ye affect cleanliness by the washing of hands; and not rather

by the performance of charity?" LIGHTFOOT's Works, vol. ii.

p. 153.



Before men] Our Lord does not forbid public alms-giving,

fasting, and prayer, but simply censures those vain and

hypocritical persons who do these things publicly that they may be

seen of men, and receive from them the reputation of saints, &c.